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MATERIALS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

Corso di laurea magistrale

Piano di Studi


Curricula:


NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

Primo anno

  • Mechanical Behaviour of Materials (6 cfu)

    • This course will examine how the microstructure of a material determines its mechanical behaviour ranging from the continuum description of properties to the atomistic and molecular mechanisms that confer those properties to all materials. We will cover elastic and plastic deformation, creep, fracture and fatigue of materials including crystalline and amorphous metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and (bio)polymers, and will focus on the design and processing of materials from the atomic to the macroscale to achieve desired mechanical behavior.

      Topics include:

      • Introduction to deformation behaviour: Concept of stresses and strains, engineering stresses and strains, Different types of loading and temperature encountered in applications, Tensile Test - stress-strain response for metal, ceramic and polymer, elastic region, yield point, plastic deformation, necking and fracture, Bonding and Material Behaviour, theoretical estimates of yield strength in metals and ceramics.
      • Elasticity (the State of Stress and strain, stress and strain tensor, tensor transformation, principal stress and strain, elastic stress-strain relation, anisotropy, elastic behaviour of metals, ceramics and polymers.).
      • Viscoelasticity (Molecular foundations of polymer viscoelasticity. Rouse-Bueche theory, Boltzmann superposition principle, mechanical models, distribution of relaxation and retardation times, interrelationships between mechanical spectra, the glass transition, secondary relaxations, dielectric relaxations).
      • Plasticity (Hydrostatic and Deviatoric stress, Octahedral stress, yield criteria and yield surface, texture and distortion of yield surface, Limitation of engineering strain at large deformation, true stress and true strain, effective stress, effective strain, flow rules, strain hardening, Ramberg-Osgood equation, stress -strain relation in plasticity, plastic deformation of metals and polymers).
      • Microscopic view of plastic deformation: crystals and defects, classification of defects, thermodynamics of defects, geometry of dislocations, slip and glide, dislocation generation - Frank Read and grain boundary sources, stress and strain field around dislocations, force on dislocation - self-stress, dislocation interactions, partial dislocations, twinning, dislocation movement and strain rate, deformation behavior of single crystal, critical resolved shear stress (CRSS), deformation of poly-crystals - Hall-Petch and other hardening mechanisms, grain size effect - source limited plasticity, Hall-Petch breakdown, dislocations in ceramics and glasses.
      • Effects of microstructure on the mechanics of polymeric media: deformation modes, yield, rubber toughening, alloys and blends.
      • Fracture mechanics (energetics of fracture growth, plasticity at the fracture tip, measurement of fracture toughness, - Linear fracture mechanics -KIC, elasto-plastic fracture mechanics - JIC, Measurement and ASTM standards, Design based on fracture mechanics, effect of environment, effect of microstructure on KIC and JIC, application of fracture mechanics in the design of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites, damage tolerance design, elements of fractography).
      • Fatigue (S-N curves, low- and high-cycle fatigue, laboratory testing in fatigue, residual stress, surface and environmental effects, fatigue of cracked components, designing out fatigue failure,Life cycle prediction, Fatigue in metals, ceramics, polymers and composites)
      • Creep in crystalline materials (stress-strain-time relationship, creep testing, different stages of creep, creep mechanisms and creep mechanism maps, diffusion, creep and stress rupture, creep under multi-axial loading,microstructural aspects of creep and design of creep resistant alloys, high temperature deformation of ceramics and polymers)

  • 6 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR3: per Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    • UNo a scelta tra: Computational Materials Science, Chemistry of Soft Matter, Solid State Physicochemical Methods
    • Computational Materials Science (6 cfu)

      • Quantum mechanical approaches, Density Functional Theory, many-body approaches. Multiscale approaches: quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics, coarse graining, polarizable continua. Electronic properties. Excited electronic states and UV-vis spectroscopy. Vibrations, IR and Raman spectroscopy. Dynamicaleffects.
    • Solid State Physicochemical Methods (6 cfu)

      • This course deals with subjects of molecular spectroscopy which have a fundamental importance for the characterization of materials. Its aim consists in giving to the students a basis concerning the physicochemical aspects of the most important spectroscopic techniques, as well as an overview of their possible applications. Course outline The following aspects will be treated: Basics of molecular spectroscopy: the electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetic radiations and their interaction with molecules (absorption, emission, scattering), energy levels and different types of transitions, etc. Hints on several bulk spectroscopic techniques: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Mossbauer, etc. Solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: the nuclear spin, nuclear interactions, basics theory, peculiarities of the solid state, different techniques and their applications to the study of structure and dynamics of different classes of materials. Physico-chemical methods for the study of the surfaces of materials will also be treated, as for instance Raman scattering and photoelectronic spectroscopies.
    • Chemistry of Soft Matter (6 cfu)

      • The course aims at: -Understanding the general concepts of the chemistry of polymers, colloids and interfaces. -Knowing key methods of polymerisation, and their applicability in soft matter. -Explaining the polymeric properties, and the methods utilised to assess these properties. -Explaining the relationships between polymer preparation, structure and properties. -Describing the applications of polymers and understanding which polymers are suitable for which applications. Course outline Fundamentals of soft polymeric materials with special emphasis on the definition, classification, structure of monomers and polymers, their tacticity and molecular weight. Polymer chemistry (synthesis of polymers and the different mechanisms involved), polymer physics (the semi-crystalline state, the thermal transitions in polymers, structure-property relationships) and the mechanical behaviour of macromolecules are also described. Surface tension, adsorption and surface activity, micelle formation and colloids: examples and applications. General description of the importance of physical and chemical properties of soft matter as applied in advanced materials.
  • 12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR4: per Advanced Materials e Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    • Uno a scelta tra: Electromagnetic Materials and Electron Devices, Spectroscopy of nanomaterials
    • Electromagnetic Materials and Electron Devices (12 cfu)

      • Electromagnetic Materials The course introduces the fundamental laws of electromagnetic fields, with the aim of devising electromagnetic properties of materials. The different configurations of the electromagnetic field propagating in various transmission lines are treated in details and then used for resorting to equivalent model representations of composite materials. Analysis of radiating structures and definition of parameters employed to characterize microwave devices are also addressed. Electron Devices The course covers the fundamental properties of the electron devices that represent the building blocks of modern electronic circuits and systems. After introducing the main concepts of electrical transport in semiconductors, the physics and the operation of the pn junction, the bipolar and the field effect transistors are treated in detail. Furthermore, we will discuss the effect of nanostructuring on the transport properties of materials and on device properties.
    • Spectroscopy of nanomaterials (12 cfu)

      • Emission, scattering, absorption properties of confined nano systems; experimental techniques, sources, detectors, spectrometers; Fourier and Raman spectroscopy; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; plasmonics from surface and localized resonances; survey of nano photonics devices; linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopies; optical microscopy beyond the diffraction limit; atomic and electrostatic force microscopy and spectroscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy.
  • 9 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR1: per Advanced Materials e Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    • Uno a sceta tra: Quantum and condensed matter physics e -Solid State Physics
    • Quantum and condensed matter physics (9 cfu)

      • Wave-particleduality and uncertaintyprinciple. Schroedingerequation. Onedimensionalmotion. Hydrogen atom. Spin. Polyelectronic atoms. Atomic spectroscopy. Hydrogen molecule. Polyatomic molecules. Rotations and vibrations of molecules. Molecular spectroscopy. Thermal equilibrium and statistical distributions. Types of solids. Free electron model of metals. Phonons. Electronic energy bands and Bloch wavefunctions. Semiconductors. Transportproperties. Optical properties
    • Solid State Physics (9 cfu)

      • Electrons in a one dimensional periodic potential. Geometrical description of crystals: direct and reciprocal lattice. Electron gas. Electronic energy levels in solids. Lattice dynamics. Optical properties of semiconductors and insulators. Fundamentals of semiconductor physics.
  • 9 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR2:per Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    • One between: Nanostructured Materials e Quantum Optics Lab
    • Nanostructured Materials (9 cfu)

      • Synthesis and fabrication techniques of nanostructured materials. Morphological, electronic, chemical, compositional, structural and optical properties of semiconductor and carbon-based nanostructures; characterization techniques.
    • Quantum Optics Lab (9 cfu)

      • Electromagnetic propagation in homogeneous media. Polarisation of an electromagnetic wave. Laws of reflection and refraction. Interference. Optical Fibres.
  • 12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR6: per Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    • Due a scelta tra: Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media, Materials and Devices for Nanoscale Electronics, Photonics
    • Photonics (6 cfu)


    • Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media (6 cfu)

      • Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media. Obiettiviformativi:The course reviews the constitutive parameters of classical materials and introduces the methods for retrieving these parameters from measurements. Complex materials obtained with inclusions of dielectric or metallic particles into homogeneous media are addressed. Theory of wave propagation in complex media are presented and applied to metamaterial transmission lines and periodic structures.
    • Materials and Devices for Nanoscale Electronics (6 cfu)

      • The course focuses on the relationship between materials and the development of nanoelectronic devices. Starting from an analysis of the main characteristics of CMOS scaling and the role played by advanced materials in furthering Moore's law in the last decade, the role of emerging device concepts and the way they are enabled by novel material systems will then be introduced. Practical case studies and design examples will be discussed.
  • 6 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR5: per Nanoscience and nanotechnology

    • Uno a scelta tra: Biomaterials, Fundamentals of material science and engineering
    • Fundamentals of materials science and engineering (6 cfu)


    • Biomaterials (6 cfu)

      • This course of Biomaterials is designed to provide a general understanding of the multidisciplinary field of biomaterials, and to give a key focus on new products arising from nanotechnology. Specifically, it aims at developing in the attendants all the necessary skills as well as the fundamental theoretical and technical competences with the ultimate goal to have graduated students who can successfully interface with the multidisciplinary scenario of biomaterials-related products and technologies, both in industrial and research environments. The current and innovative applications of biomaterials will be evaluated to highlight the connections existing between material properties, function, biological responses and clinical applications. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of this topic, both teamwork and self-learning will be stimulated. After the completion of the course, the students will be able to: • Understand the interaction between biomaterials and biologic systems, • Understand the fundamental principles of biomaterials and their properties, • Know the advanced biofabrication techniques (from macro-to-nanoscale), • Know the modern analytical and imaging techniques for characterization of biomaterials, • Know the most important regulatory aspects for clinical translation, • Demonstrate effective communication and teamwork skills through technical presentations and reports, • Demonstrate capability of to understand the scientific literature. Contents Biocompatibility and material-cell/tissue/organ interactions. Classes of materials used in medicine (synthetic and biologic polymers, metals, ceramics, composites, graft tissues). Properties of materials (chemical, physical, mechanical, architectural, surface). Exploiting biomaterial properties for medical purposes. Advanced biofabrication techniques (nano and microfiber manufacturing, nanoparticle and nanotube synthesis). Techniques for biomaterials characterization. Biological testing of biomaterials. Application of materials in medicine, biology and artificial organs: tissue engineering, drug delivery, nanomedicine. Regulatory aspects involving biomaterial devices.
  • Secondo anno

  • Computational Nanoelectronics and Metamaterials (6 cfu)

    • Metamaterials
      Through the investigation of the theoretical aspects of engineered composite materials, the course analyzes the innovative concepts used by state-of-the art devices. Examples of applications of metamaterial-based devices are illustrated and deeply analyzed. In particular, artificial impedance surfaces, innovative radiating structures and EM absorbing surfaces are presented.
      Computational Nanoelectronics
      Multi-scale approaches will be introduced, for the investigation of the physical properties of conventional (Silicon, III-V semiconductors) as well as new materials (graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, etc.) for electron devices. In particular, we will discuss atomistic models and associated numerical methods for the evaluation of the main mechanisms at play in carrier transport. Such an approach will be exploited to eventually assess device performance against industry requirements.
  • Tirocinio (15 cfu)


  • Prova finale (15 cfu)


  • 12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo LIBERA SCELTA: Attività a libera scelta per Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    • 12 cfu a scelta tra gli esami indicati e gli esami degli altri indirizzi
    • Glass Transition (3 cfu)

      • The course discusses the transformation of non- crystallizable liquid and polymeric systems in amorphous solids. The student is introduced to the study of thermodynamic systems outside equilibrium through simple statistical models
    • Surface Physics (3 cfu)

      • The course consists of a general introduction to the physics of surfaces and interfaces that focuses on the concepts of basis rather than the specific details, and explore the physical phenomena that underpin the most important techniques and methods of analysis of surfaces.
    • Cyber-Physical Systems (6 cfu)

      • New architecture for the integration of processing, storage and network (Network Function Visualization and Software Defined Networking). Coordination between physical and virtual space (Cloud Networking, Fog/Edge Computing). Convergence among computation, communication and control. Embedded systems, sensors, actuators. Industrial internet and protocol stacks for industrial networks of sensors and actuators. Tools for simulation and emulation. Hands-on activities in an industrial IoT scenario.
    • Principles of Microfluidics (6 cfu)

      • 1. Fundamentals of fluid mechanics: newtonian fluids, Navier-Stokes equations; analysis of the flow in various regimes: inertial flows, irrotational flows, low-Reynolds-number (creeping) flows; boundary conditions. 2. Physical chemistry of surfaces: interfacial phenomena, capillarity; micro/nano particles in fluids: electrical interfaces in electrolyte solutions, electrical double layer, colloidal dispersions, micro-emulsions. 3. Fluid flows in confined geometries: flows in micro-pores; electro-osmotic flows; diffusio-osmotic flows; capillary flows, coating flows. Low-Reynolds-number flows of micro-particles (or micro-drops o micro-bubbles ) in fluids; micro-break-up of liquid jets, sprays; electrophoresis, diffusiophoresis, liquid flows driven by surface tension. Aggregation dynamics of colloidal particles with or without shear-flow: I e II Smoluchowski’s theory.
    • Nanostructured Inorganic Systems (3 cfu)

      • The course covers the preparation of nanomaterials via colloidal chemistry methods, from the basics to the state of the art, including complex, multifunctional nano-heterostructures. Fundamental properties of plasmonic and magnetic colloidal nanomaterials are discussed, together with current and future applications.
  • 6 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR7: per Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    • Uno a scelta tra:Electron Microscopy of Nanomaterials, Polymer Science and Engineering
    • Polymer Science and Engineering (6 cfu)

      • Molecular structure of polymers: thermoplastics and thermosets, definitions and types. Polymer chain flexibility. Chain conformations in polymers. Review of classical and statistical thermodynamics, configuration and conformation of isolated polymer chains, the rotational isomeric state model, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of polymer solutions, scaling theory, single chain dynamics, scattering (light, x-ray, neutron).Rubber elasticity. Amorphous state and glass transition. Free volume theory &Tg. Crystalline state and crystallization. Thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and thermomechanical analysis) is explained, together with brief description of instruments and data analysis. Characterization of orientation, morphology, superstructure in polymers using x-ray, light scattering, birefringence, dichroism. Crystallography, unit cell determination. Spectroscopy theory. UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Infra-Red Spectroscopy. NMR spectroscopy. Definitions of Polymer Processing. Extrusion lines. Injection molding processes. Blow molding Processes. Application of Rheology in Polymer Processing: Simple die and injection mold design. Screw types and definitions. Screw design: metering zone. Isothermal and adiabatic extrusion equations.
    • Electron Microscopy of Nanomaterials (6 cfu)

      • ....
  • 6 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR8: per Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    • One among: Introduction to Molecular Biophysics, Cell Biophysics, Biosensors, Quantum Liquids, Quantum Theory of Solids
    • Quantum Theory of Solids (6 cfu)

      • Electronic states in solids: the approximation to an electron and its overcoming. Excitons, plasmons and screen dielectric crystals. Born- Oppenheimer approximation. Hellmann - Feynman theorem and its application to the calculation of forces on the nuclei. Phase definition of Berry. Superconductivity.
    • Biosensors (6 cfu)


    • Quantum Liquids (6 cfu)

      • Al termine dell’insegnamento, la/lo studente avrà sviluppato conoscenze concettuali, procedurali e fattuali nella fisica dei liquidi quantistici. In particolare, avrà imparato a: (a) Conoscere il funzionamento di una “cassetta degli attrezzi” per concepire e realizzare in modo altamente controllato e accurato condizioni di forte correlazione nelle proprietà di carica/densità e/o di spin in liquidi quantistici, agendo su temperatura, dimensionalità, forza e range di interazione, introduzione di campi di gauge artificiali e dimensioni sintetiche; (b) Conoscere metodi teorici avanzati per predire e caratterizzare lo stato fondamentale e le eccitazioni di liquidi quantistici all’equilibrio e fuori equilibrio, metterli in relazione tra loro, e classificarli in base alla loro funzionalità per specifiche tipologie di problemi. Tra i metodi teorici sviluppati sono la teoria della risposta lineare, della misura e delle funzioni di correlazione, la fluidodinamica e l’idrodinamica quantistica, la teoria del funzionale di densità statico e dipendente dal tempo, la teoria delle funzioni di Green e loro approssimazioni autoconsistenti, la bosonizzazione in una dimensione, elementi introduttivi sui metodi per trattare sistemi quantistici aperti driven-dissipative, elementi conoscitivi per mettere in relazione questi metodi teorici con metodi di simulazione come Quantum Monte Carlo e Density-Matrix Renormalization Group (c) Conoscere la fenomenologia dei liquidi quantistici nelle principali piattaforme sperimentali in cui vengono correntemente ingegnerizzati e utilizzati: quantum gases, circuiti a superconduttore, light fluids in cavità ottiche, sistemi a semiconduttore 2D. Cogliere l’utilità di queste piattaforme per lo studio di problemi di fisica della materia e di fisica fondamentale. Obiettivi formativi Al termine dell’insegnamento lo studente avrà appreso a (a) Riconoscere nella complessità di comportamento fisico dei liquidi quantistici la semplicità delle proprietà macroscopiche, governate da leggi di conservazione e rotture di simmetria accompagnate da elasticità, modi dinamici a bassa frequenza e difetti (b) Organizzare e mettere in relazione questa conoscenza disciplinare in una stessa mappa concettuale con termodinamica, meccanica statistica e transizioni di fase, meccanica quantistica, teorie di campo, e struttura della materia nelle sue diverse realizzazioni (c) Connettere la comprensione concettuale e la formalizzazione del problema con la fenomenologia e i fatti sperimentali disponibili, e avere un'idea delle applicazioni; interpretare la fenomenologia in termini di pochi concetti e idee essenziali, e inferirne il funzionamento (d) Formalizzare i concetti e saperli trattare attraverso l'uso di uno o più tra i metodi sviluppati nel corso e relative procedure
    • Introduction to Molecular Biophysics (6 cfu)

      • The course will introduce to basic concepts such as the structure of biomolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, cofactors, lipids) and their functions (structural proteins, enzymes, receptors, membrane proteins; Nucleic acids: storage and transfer of information genetics; cell membrane components). Experimental methods for molecular spectroscopy (electronic spectroscopy: UV / vis absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence and phosphorescence; Vibrational spectroscopy of biomolecules: IR and Raman) and structural investigation (X-ray crystallography, NMR and electron microscopy) will be also presented. Part of the course will be focused to the biomolecular modeling: all atom models, quantum mechanical methods (QM), molecular mechanics and empirical force fields, molecular and accelerated dynamics (replication exchange and metadynamics) and some application to prediction and design of protein structures. The general concepts underlying the multiscale models are also illustrated: PES / FES, collective variables, coarse-grained models, elastic network and Go models, implicit solvent models, implicit membrane models, other “continuous” models. Finally, some applications will be introduced regarding: membrane receptors and the transmission of nervous signals, bio-non-bio interfaces (eg functionalized nanoparticles), structure and photophysics of fluorescent proteins.
    • Cell Biophysics (6 cfu)

      • The course revealing the physical bases permeating the complex physical systems that make up the simplest life’s unit, the cell. In particular: - thermodynamics of biological systems far of equilibrium and the role of natural selection - nanoscale structures as platforms for biological processes and their regulation - application of experimental physical techniques to the study of intracellular physical processes, with particular regard to optical microscopy / nanoscopy

  • ADVANCED MATERIALS

    Primo anno

  • Fundamentals of polymer processing (9 cfu)


  • Mechanical Behaviour of Materials (6 cfu)

    • This course will examine how the microstructure of a material determines its mechanical behaviour ranging from the continuum description of properties to the atomistic and molecular mechanisms that confer those properties to all materials. We will cover elastic and plastic deformation, creep, fracture and fatigue of materials including crystalline and amorphous metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and (bio)polymers, and will focus on the design and processing of materials from the atomic to the macroscale to achieve desired mechanical behavior.

      Topics include:

      • Introduction to deformation behaviour: Concept of stresses and strains, engineering stresses and strains, Different types of loading and temperature encountered in applications, Tensile Test - stress-strain response for metal, ceramic and polymer, elastic region, yield point, plastic deformation, necking and fracture, Bonding and Material Behaviour, theoretical estimates of yield strength in metals and ceramics.
      • Elasticity (the State of Stress and strain, stress and strain tensor, tensor transformation, principal stress and strain, elastic stress-strain relation, anisotropy, elastic behaviour of metals, ceramics and polymers.).
      • Viscoelasticity (Molecular foundations of polymer viscoelasticity. Rouse-Bueche theory, Boltzmann superposition principle, mechanical models, distribution of relaxation and retardation times, interrelationships between mechanical spectra, the glass transition, secondary relaxations, dielectric relaxations).
      • Plasticity (Hydrostatic and Deviatoric stress, Octahedral stress, yield criteria and yield surface, texture and distortion of yield surface, Limitation of engineering strain at large deformation, true stress and true strain, effective stress, effective strain, flow rules, strain hardening, Ramberg-Osgood equation, stress -strain relation in plasticity, plastic deformation of metals and polymers).
      • Microscopic view of plastic deformation: crystals and defects, classification of defects, thermodynamics of defects, geometry of dislocations, slip and glide, dislocation generation - Frank Read and grain boundary sources, stress and strain field around dislocations, force on dislocation - self-stress, dislocation interactions, partial dislocations, twinning, dislocation movement and strain rate, deformation behavior of single crystal, critical resolved shear stress (CRSS), deformation of poly-crystals - Hall-Petch and other hardening mechanisms, grain size effect - source limited plasticity, Hall-Petch breakdown, dislocations in ceramics and glasses.
      • Effects of microstructure on the mechanics of polymeric media: deformation modes, yield, rubber toughening, alloys and blends.
      • Fracture mechanics (energetics of fracture growth, plasticity at the fracture tip, measurement of fracture toughness, - Linear fracture mechanics -KIC, elasto-plastic fracture mechanics - JIC, Measurement and ASTM standards, Design based on fracture mechanics, effect of environment, effect of microstructure on KIC and JIC, application of fracture mechanics in the design of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites, damage tolerance design, elements of fractography).
      • Fatigue (S-N curves, low- and high-cycle fatigue, laboratory testing in fatigue, residual stress, surface and environmental effects, fatigue of cracked components, designing out fatigue failure,Life cycle prediction, Fatigue in metals, ceramics, polymers and composites)
      • Creep in crystalline materials (stress-strain-time relationship, creep testing, different stages of creep, creep mechanisms and creep mechanism maps, diffusion, creep and stress rupture, creep under multi-axial loading,microstructural aspects of creep and design of creep resistant alloys, high temperature deformation of ceramics and polymers)

  • 12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR4: per Advanced Materials e Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    • Uno a scelta tra: Electromagnetic Materials and Electron Devices, Spectroscopy of nanomaterials
    • Electromagnetic Materials and Electron Devices (12 cfu)

      • Electromagnetic Materials The course introduces the fundamental laws of electromagnetic fields, with the aim of devising electromagnetic properties of materials. The different configurations of the electromagnetic field propagating in various transmission lines are treated in details and then used for resorting to equivalent model representations of composite materials. Analysis of radiating structures and definition of parameters employed to characterize microwave devices are also addressed. Electron Devices The course covers the fundamental properties of the electron devices that represent the building blocks of modern electronic circuits and systems. After introducing the main concepts of electrical transport in semiconductors, the physics and the operation of the pn junction, the bipolar and the field effect transistors are treated in detail. Furthermore, we will discuss the effect of nanostructuring on the transport properties of materials and on device properties.
    • Spectroscopy of nanomaterials (12 cfu)

      • Emission, scattering, absorption properties of confined nano systems; experimental techniques, sources, detectors, spectrometers; Fourier and Raman spectroscopy; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; plasmonics from surface and localized resonances; survey of nano photonics devices; linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopies; optical microscopy beyond the diffraction limit; atomic and electrostatic force microscopy and spectroscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy.
  • 9 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR1: per Advanced Materials e Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    • Uno a sceta tra: Quantum and condensed matter physics e -Solid State Physics
    • Quantum and condensed matter physics (9 cfu)

      • Wave-particleduality and uncertaintyprinciple. Schroedingerequation. Onedimensionalmotion. Hydrogen atom. Spin. Polyelectronic atoms. Atomic spectroscopy. Hydrogen molecule. Polyatomic molecules. Rotations and vibrations of molecules. Molecular spectroscopy. Thermal equilibrium and statistical distributions. Types of solids. Free electron model of metals. Phonons. Electronic energy bands and Bloch wavefunctions. Semiconductors. Transportproperties. Optical properties
    • Solid State Physics (9 cfu)

      • Electrons in a one dimensional periodic potential. Geometrical description of crystals: direct and reciprocal lattice. Electron gas. Electronic energy levels in solids. Lattice dynamics. Optical properties of semiconductors and insulators. Fundamentals of semiconductor physics.
  • 12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR2: per Biomaterials e Advancedf Materials

    • Due a scelta tra: Chemistry of Soft Matter, Computational Materials Science, Solid State Physicochemical Methods
    • Computational Materials Science (6 cfu)

      • Quantum mechanical approaches, Density Functional Theory, many-body approaches. Multiscale approaches: quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics, coarse graining, polarizable continua. Electronic properties. Excited electronic states and UV-vis spectroscopy. Vibrations, IR and Raman spectroscopy. Dynamicaleffects.
    • Solid State Physicochemical Methods (6 cfu)

      • This course deals with subjects of molecular spectroscopy which have a fundamental importance for the characterization of materials. Its aim consists in giving to the students a basis concerning the physicochemical aspects of the most important spectroscopic techniques, as well as an overview of their possible applications. Course outline The following aspects will be treated: Basics of molecular spectroscopy: the electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetic radiations and their interaction with molecules (absorption, emission, scattering), energy levels and different types of transitions, etc. Hints on several bulk spectroscopic techniques: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Mossbauer, etc. Solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: the nuclear spin, nuclear interactions, basics theory, peculiarities of the solid state, different techniques and their applications to the study of structure and dynamics of different classes of materials. Physico-chemical methods for the study of the surfaces of materials will also be treated, as for instance Raman scattering and photoelectronic spectroscopies.
    • Chemistry of Soft Matter (6 cfu)

      • The course aims at: -Understanding the general concepts of the chemistry of polymers, colloids and interfaces. -Knowing key methods of polymerisation, and their applicability in soft matter. -Explaining the polymeric properties, and the methods utilised to assess these properties. -Explaining the relationships between polymer preparation, structure and properties. -Describing the applications of polymers and understanding which polymers are suitable for which applications. Course outline Fundamentals of soft polymeric materials with special emphasis on the definition, classification, structure of monomers and polymers, their tacticity and molecular weight. Polymer chemistry (synthesis of polymers and the different mechanisms involved), polymer physics (the semi-crystalline state, the thermal transitions in polymers, structure-property relationships) and the mechanical behaviour of macromolecules are also described. Surface tension, adsorption and surface activity, micelle formation and colloids: examples and applications. General description of the importance of physical and chemical properties of soft matter as applied in advanced materials.
  • 12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR3: per Advanced Materials

    • Due a scelta tra: Computational mechanics of materials, Fundamentals of material science and engineering, Principles of Microfluidics, Transport Phenomena in Materials, Green Chemistry for Materials and Processes
    • Transport Phenomena in Materials (6 cfu)

      • This course deals with solid-state diffusion, homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions, and spinodal decomposition. Topics covered include: heat conduction in solids, convective and radiative heat transfer boundary conditions; fluid dynamics, 1-D solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, boundary layer theory, turbulent flow, and coupling with heat conduction and diffusion in fluids to calculate heat and mass transfer coefficients. Course outline The following aspects will be treated: 1. Mathematical Review Differential operators (gradient, divergence, curl, laplacian) and tensors in cartesian and curvilinear (spherical, cylindrical) coordinates. Eulerian and Lagrangian derivatives. 2. Momentum and Heat Transport in Materials Mass conservation: the continuity equation. Momentum flux and stress tensor. Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids. Momentum conservation: the motion equation and related boundary conditions. Bernoulli’s theorem. Flow fields in ducts and past solid bodies. Creeping and potential flow. Laminar and turbulent regimes. Heat flux: Fourier’s law. Energy conservation: the internal-energy equation. Velocity and temperature pertubations in bounded and unbounded systems. Adimensional transport equations and adimensional numbers. 3. Diffusion in Multi-Component Materials Average mass and molar velocity. Absolute and relative fluxes. Mass flux: diffusion mechanisms and generalized Fick’s law. Continuity, motion and internal-energy equations for multi-component systems in dimensional and adimensional forms. Concentration perturbations. 4. Numerical Methods for Transport Equations Finite-difference methods: consistency, convergence, stability. Overview of finite-element methods. 5. Illustrative Applications in Materials Science Flow problems in polymer technology. Anisotropic flows and orientation dynamics in liquid crystals. Heterogeneous catalysts: diffusion with chemical reaction, kinetic control.
    • Principles of Microfluidics (6 cfu)

      • 1. Fundamentals of fluid mechanics: newtonian fluids, Navier-Stokes equations; analysis of the flow in various regimes: inertial flows, irrotational flows, low-Reynolds-number (creeping) flows; boundary conditions. 2. Physical chemistry of surfaces: interfacial phenomena, capillarity; micro/nano particles in fluids: electrical interfaces in electrolyte solutions, electrical double layer, colloidal dispersions, micro-emulsions. 3. Fluid flows in confined geometries: flows in micro-pores; electro-osmotic flows; diffusio-osmotic flows; capillary flows, coating flows. Low-Reynolds-number flows of micro-particles (or micro-drops o micro-bubbles ) in fluids; micro-break-up of liquid jets, sprays; electrophoresis, diffusiophoresis, liquid flows driven by surface tension. Aggregation dynamics of colloidal particles with or without shear-flow: I e II Smoluchowski’s theory.
    • Fundamentals of materials science and engineering (6 cfu)


    • Computational mechanics of materials (6 cfu)


    • Green Chemistry for Materials and Processes (6 cfu)


  • Secondo anno

  • Polymer Science and Engineering (6 cfu)

    • Molecular structure of polymers: thermoplastics and thermosets, definitions and types. Polymer chain flexibility. Chain conformations in polymers. Review of classical and statistical thermodynamics, configuration and conformation of isolated polymer chains, the rotational isomeric state model, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of polymer solutions, scaling theory, single chain dynamics, scattering (light, x-ray, neutron).Rubber elasticity. Amorphous state and glass transition. Free volume theory &Tg. Crystalline state and crystallization.
      Thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and thermomechanical analysis) is explained, together with brief description of instruments and data analysis. Characterization of orientation, morphology, superstructure in polymers using x-ray, light scattering, birefringence, dichroism. Crystallography, unit cell determination. Spectroscopy theory. UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Infra-Red Spectroscopy. NMR spectroscopy.
      Definitions of Polymer Processing. Extrusion lines. Injection molding processes. Blow molding Processes. Application of Rheology in Polymer Processing: Simple die and injection mold design. Screw types and definitions. Screw design: metering zone. Isothermal and adiabatic extrusion equations.

  • Prova finale (15 cfu)


  • Tirocinio (15 cfu)


  • 12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo LIBERA SCELTA: attività a libera scelta per Advanced Materials

    • 12 cfu a scelta tra gli esami indicati e gli esami degli altri indirizzi
    • Nanostructured Materials (9 cfu)

      • Synthesis and fabrication techniques of nanostructured materials. Morphological, electronic, chemical, compositional, structural and optical properties of semiconductor and carbon-based nanostructures; characterization techniques.
    • Materials and Devices for Nanoscale Electronics (6 cfu)

      • The course focuses on the relationship between materials and the development of nanoelectronic devices. Starting from an analysis of the main characteristics of CMOS scaling and the role played by advanced materials in furthering Moore's law in the last decade, the role of emerging device concepts and the way they are enabled by novel material systems will then be introduced. Practical case studies and design examples will be discussed.
    • Electron Microscopy of Nanomaterials (6 cfu)

      • ....
    • Advanced Ceramics and Smart Glasses (6 cfu)

      • Ceramic introduction: general properties, classification of ceramics (traditional and advanced ceramics), oxides, non-oxides and composites, amorphous and crystalline. Ceramic microstructures: crystal chemistry, bond energy and properties. Types of imperfections in ceramics, Frenkel and Schottky defects, Kroger-Vink notation. Ceramic microstructures: XRD and ceramic applications. Main properties of ceramic materials: porosity, mechanical - thermal, chemical and functional properties. Structure-properties correlations. Ceramic phase diagrams. Ceramic production processes. Mixing, grinding, homogenization, wet and dry processing. Forming/shaping process: powder pressing, wet molding, casting and extrusion. Main characterization techniques for ceramic materials. Sintering: theory and applications. Advanced Ceramics and ceramic matrix composite: examples and applications (structural, biomedical, aerospace...). Ceramic Composite Manufacturing (Liquid, solid and gas route). Toughening Mechanism of CMC. Ceramic Matrix composites applications. Microwave assisted chemical vapour infiltration of silicon carbide composites. Theoretical and practical explanation. Zirconia-based ceramics. Zirconia powder production process. Aging, forming, heating and zirconia applications. Nanoceramics. Nanoceramics for biomedical applications. Smart glasses. Smart glasses characterization.
    • Multi-scale Modelling in Materials Design (6 cfu)


    • Nanostructured Inorganic Systems (3 cfu)

      • The course covers the preparation of nanomaterials via colloidal chemistry methods, from the basics to the state of the art, including complex, multifunctional nano-heterostructures. Fundamental properties of plasmonic and magnetic colloidal nanomaterials are discussed, together with current and future applications.
    • Computational Fluid Mechanics (6 cfu)


    • Green Chemistry for Materials and Processes (6 cfu)


    • Advanced Engineering Alloys (6 cfu)


    • Biomaterials (6 cfu)

      • This course of Biomaterials is designed to provide a general understanding of the multidisciplinary field of biomaterials, and to give a key focus on new products arising from nanotechnology. Specifically, it aims at developing in the attendants all the necessary skills as well as the fundamental theoretical and technical competences with the ultimate goal to have graduated students who can successfully interface with the multidisciplinary scenario of biomaterials-related products and technologies, both in industrial and research environments. The current and innovative applications of biomaterials will be evaluated to highlight the connections existing between material properties, function, biological responses and clinical applications. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of this topic, both teamwork and self-learning will be stimulated. After the completion of the course, the students will be able to: • Understand the interaction between biomaterials and biologic systems, • Understand the fundamental principles of biomaterials and their properties, • Know the advanced biofabrication techniques (from macro-to-nanoscale), • Know the modern analytical and imaging techniques for characterization of biomaterials, • Know the most important regulatory aspects for clinical translation, • Demonstrate effective communication and teamwork skills through technical presentations and reports, • Demonstrate capability of to understand the scientific literature. Contents Biocompatibility and material-cell/tissue/organ interactions. Classes of materials used in medicine (synthetic and biologic polymers, metals, ceramics, composites, graft tissues). Properties of materials (chemical, physical, mechanical, architectural, surface). Exploiting biomaterial properties for medical purposes. Advanced biofabrication techniques (nano and microfiber manufacturing, nanoparticle and nanotube synthesis). Techniques for biomaterials characterization. Biological testing of biomaterials. Application of materials in medicine, biology and artificial organs: tissue engineering, drug delivery, nanomedicine. Regulatory aspects involving biomaterial devices.
  • 6 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR5: per Advanced Materials

    • Uno a scelta tra: Composite Materials Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Materials Characterization, Reactive Processing and Recycling of Polymers, Sustainable and Degradable Polymers
    • Sustainable and Degradable Polymers (6 cfu)

      • This course emphasizes the recyclability and the cradle-to-grave nature of engineering materials. The course will focus on the modification and application of natural polymers, biopolymers, including their composites. Both processing and material characterisationwill be discussed in detail. The use, manufacture and design of biodegradable materials will also be discussed in the context of the cradle-to-grave or cradle-to-cradle materials use philosophy. Life cycle assessment of the process will be introduced alongside the societal perspective on the use of sustainable engineering materials. Strategies for the development and use of sustainable engineering materials will be discussed. Topics will include: Definitions related to Biopolymers, Proteins as Polymers, Polysaccharides as Polymers, Biofibers for Biocomposites, Microbial BioPolymers, Biomonomersand Polymers synthesized of, Bioresources, Natural Rubber, Properties and applicationsof biopolymers.
    • Composite Materials Science and Engineering (6 cfu)

      • Fibers and Matrices. Micromechanics of composites: Longitudinal behavior of unidirectional composites; Transverse Properties; Shear properties and poison ratio. Stress concentration, fracture and fracture mechanisms of composites. Thermal Expansion Coefficients. Short Fiber Reinforced Composites. Polymeric Foams. Adhesion and adhesive. Rheological behavior of thermosets, vulcanization of rubbers, time-temperature-transition relationships in thermosets. Fabrication of the composites. Reaction injection molding, compression/transfer molding, pultrusion. Advanced CeramicMatrix Composite Materials (CMCs): carbon/carbon (C/C), carbon/silicon carbide (C/SiC), silicon carbide/silicon carbide composites, LSI, PIP, CVI technologies.
    • Laboratory of Materials Characterization (6 cfu)


    • Reactive Processing and Recycling of Polymers (6 cfu)


  • 6 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR6: per Advanced Materials

    • Uno a scelta tra: Disordered and off-Equilibrium Systems, Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media, Polymeric Materials for Special Applications, Rheology
    • Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media (6 cfu)

      • Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media. Obiettiviformativi:The course reviews the constitutive parameters of classical materials and introduces the methods for retrieving these parameters from measurements. Complex materials obtained with inclusions of dielectric or metallic particles into homogeneous media are addressed. Theory of wave propagation in complex media are presented and applied to metamaterial transmission lines and periodic structures.
    • Polymeric Materials for Special Applications (6 cfu)

      • The course aims at providing a wide understanding of modern science and technology of polymeric materials with the principal objective of achieving a good knowledge of the chemical fundamentals of the design, preparation and application of polymers in a variety of advanced applications. Main topics will deal with: -Basic principles of the industrial chemistry of polymers, mainly synthetic polymers as well as natural polymers. -Special features concerned with the molecular design, preparation and characterization of polymers starting from both petrochemicals, fine chemicals and chemicals from renewable resources. -Analysis of the main physical-chemical properties, in view of current and prospective uses in e.g. optical and photonic devices, liquid crystalline fibers and composites, high performance and engineering plastics, environmentally friendly and biodegradable polymer systems. The student will learn criteria for selection of more actual and profitable products and processes and will know how to tackle the current issues associated with science and technology for industrial production and its social-economical and environmental impact. He/she will be able to define structure-reactivity and structure-property relationships for special polymers in view of their practical performance in specific application fields.
    • Rheology (6 cfu)

      • 1) The viscosity of liquids - introduction to rheology 2) Flow and deformation -introduction -shear rate and shear stress -dimensions and units 3) The newtonian liquid - viscosity - variation of viscosity with temperature - effects of pressure -limit of newtonian behaviour 4) Some equations for the flow of newtonian liquid -flow in rotational viscometer -flow in straight circular pipes -spheres falling in newtonian liquids - other important flows 5) Viscometry -some important things about using viscometers -viscometer design 6) Shear—thinning liquid -qualitative features of flow curves -mathematical description of flow curves: models 7) Equations for the flow of non – newtonian fluids -some selected exemples 8) Yield stress fluids - history of the yield stress and yield stress values - flow equations with yield stress 9) The flow of “solids” - non-linear “viscosity” of solids 10) Linear viscoelasticity and time effects - introduction - mechanical analogues of viscoelastic behaviour - measuring linear viscoelasticity : creep and oscillatory tests, response of model materials and real systems - relationship between oscillatory and steady-state viscoelastic parameters - stress relaxation testing and start-up experiments 11)Non- linear viscoelasticity - everyday elastic liquids - some visible viscoelastic manifestations - proper description of viscoelastic forces and their measurements - some viscoelastic formulas 15) The flow of suspensions - viscosity of dispersions and emulsions - effects of the shape and size of the particles -overview of particle interactions - viscosity of flocculated systems -thixotropy -shear thickening 16) Polymer rheology - different kinds of polymer chains - polymer solutions - polymer melts 17) Rheology of surfactant systems -surfactant phases -rheology of surfactant systems 18) Rheology of food products 19) Extensional flow -the extensional flow - the Trouton ratio - examples of extensional viscosity curves - some applications
    • Disordered and off-Equilibrium Systems (6 cfu)

      • By the end of the course, students will have acquired a basic knowledge in the following areas: · Description and interpretation of disorder in liquids, colloids, glasses and polymers, · Dynamics and thermodynamics of the off-equilibrium systems, · Experimental techniques currently used in studies concerning structure and dynamics of disordered system Format: lectures, group learning projects

  • BIOMATERIALS

    Primo anno

  • Mechanical Behaviour of Materials (6 cfu)

    • This course will examine how the microstructure of a material determines its mechanical behaviour ranging from the continuum description of properties to the atomistic and molecular mechanisms that confer those properties to all materials. We will cover elastic and plastic deformation, creep, fracture and fatigue of materials including crystalline and amorphous metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and (bio)polymers, and will focus on the design and processing of materials from the atomic to the macroscale to achieve desired mechanical behavior.

      Topics include:

      • Introduction to deformation behaviour: Concept of stresses and strains, engineering stresses and strains, Different types of loading and temperature encountered in applications, Tensile Test - stress-strain response for metal, ceramic and polymer, elastic region, yield point, plastic deformation, necking and fracture, Bonding and Material Behaviour, theoretical estimates of yield strength in metals and ceramics.
      • Elasticity (the State of Stress and strain, stress and strain tensor, tensor transformation, principal stress and strain, elastic stress-strain relation, anisotropy, elastic behaviour of metals, ceramics and polymers.).
      • Viscoelasticity (Molecular foundations of polymer viscoelasticity. Rouse-Bueche theory, Boltzmann superposition principle, mechanical models, distribution of relaxation and retardation times, interrelationships between mechanical spectra, the glass transition, secondary relaxations, dielectric relaxations).
      • Plasticity (Hydrostatic and Deviatoric stress, Octahedral stress, yield criteria and yield surface, texture and distortion of yield surface, Limitation of engineering strain at large deformation, true stress and true strain, effective stress, effective strain, flow rules, strain hardening, Ramberg-Osgood equation, stress -strain relation in plasticity, plastic deformation of metals and polymers).
      • Microscopic view of plastic deformation: crystals and defects, classification of defects, thermodynamics of defects, geometry of dislocations, slip and glide, dislocation generation - Frank Read and grain boundary sources, stress and strain field around dislocations, force on dislocation - self-stress, dislocation interactions, partial dislocations, twinning, dislocation movement and strain rate, deformation behavior of single crystal, critical resolved shear stress (CRSS), deformation of poly-crystals - Hall-Petch and other hardening mechanisms, grain size effect - source limited plasticity, Hall-Petch breakdown, dislocations in ceramics and glasses.
      • Effects of microstructure on the mechanics of polymeric media: deformation modes, yield, rubber toughening, alloys and blends.
      • Fracture mechanics (energetics of fracture growth, plasticity at the fracture tip, measurement of fracture toughness, - Linear fracture mechanics -KIC, elasto-plastic fracture mechanics - JIC, Measurement and ASTM standards, Design based on fracture mechanics, effect of environment, effect of microstructure on KIC and JIC, application of fracture mechanics in the design of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites, damage tolerance design, elements of fractography).
      • Fatigue (S-N curves, low- and high-cycle fatigue, laboratory testing in fatigue, residual stress, surface and environmental effects, fatigue of cracked components, designing out fatigue failure,Life cycle prediction, Fatigue in metals, ceramics, polymers and composites)
      • Creep in crystalline materials (stress-strain-time relationship, creep testing, different stages of creep, creep mechanisms and creep mechanism maps, diffusion, creep and stress rupture, creep under multi-axial loading,microstructural aspects of creep and design of creep resistant alloys, high temperature deformation of ceramics and polymers)

  • Laboratory of Materials Characterization (6 cfu)


  • Biomaterials (9 cfu)

    • This course of Biomaterials is designed to provide a general understanding of the multidisciplinary field of biomaterials, and to give a key focus on new products arising from nanotechnology. Specifically, it aims at developing in the attendants all the necessary skills as well as the fundamental theoretical and technical competences with the ultimate goal to have graduated students who can successfully interface with the multidisciplinary scenario of biomaterials-related products and technologies, both in industrial and research environments. The current and innovative applications of biomaterials will be evaluated to highlight the connections existing between material properties, function, biological responses and clinical applications. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of this topic, both teamwork and self-learning will be stimulated.

      After the completion of the course, the students will be able to:

      • Understand the interaction between biomaterials and biologic systems,
      • Understand the fundamental principles of biomaterials and their properties,
      • Know the advanced biofabrication techniques (from macro-to-nanoscale),
      • Know the modern analytical and imaging techniques for characterization of biomaterials,
      • Know the most important regulatory aspects for clinical translation,
      • Demonstrate effective communication and teamwork skills through technical presentations and reports,
      • Demonstrate capability of to understand the scientific literature.

      Contents
      Biocompatibility and material-cell/tissue/organ interactions. Classes of materials used in medicine (synthetic and biologic polymers, metals, ceramics, composites, graft tissues). Properties of materials (chemical, physical, mechanical, architectural, surface). Exploiting biomaterial properties for medical purposes. Advanced biofabrication techniques (nano and microfiber manufacturing, nanoparticle and nanotube synthesis). Techniques for biomaterials characterization. Biological testing of biomaterials. Application of materials in medicine, biology and artificial organs: tissue engineering, drug delivery, nanomedicine. Regulatory aspects involving biomaterial devices.

  • 12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR2: per Biomaterials e Advancedf Materials

    • Due a scelta tra: Chemistry of Soft Matter, Computational Materials Science, Solid State Physicochemical Methods
    • Computational Materials Science (6 cfu)

      • Quantum mechanical approaches, Density Functional Theory, many-body approaches. Multiscale approaches: quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics, coarse graining, polarizable continua. Electronic properties. Excited electronic states and UV-vis spectroscopy. Vibrations, IR and Raman spectroscopy. Dynamicaleffects.
    • Solid State Physicochemical Methods (6 cfu)

      • This course deals with subjects of molecular spectroscopy which have a fundamental importance for the characterization of materials. Its aim consists in giving to the students a basis concerning the physicochemical aspects of the most important spectroscopic techniques, as well as an overview of their possible applications. Course outline The following aspects will be treated: Basics of molecular spectroscopy: the electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetic radiations and their interaction with molecules (absorption, emission, scattering), energy levels and different types of transitions, etc. Hints on several bulk spectroscopic techniques: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Mossbauer, etc. Solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: the nuclear spin, nuclear interactions, basics theory, peculiarities of the solid state, different techniques and their applications to the study of structure and dynamics of different classes of materials. Physico-chemical methods for the study of the surfaces of materials will also be treated, as for instance Raman scattering and photoelectronic spectroscopies.
    • Chemistry of Soft Matter (6 cfu)

      • The course aims at: -Understanding the general concepts of the chemistry of polymers, colloids and interfaces. -Knowing key methods of polymerisation, and their applicability in soft matter. -Explaining the polymeric properties, and the methods utilised to assess these properties. -Explaining the relationships between polymer preparation, structure and properties. -Describing the applications of polymers and understanding which polymers are suitable for which applications. Course outline Fundamentals of soft polymeric materials with special emphasis on the definition, classification, structure of monomers and polymers, their tacticity and molecular weight. Polymer chemistry (synthesis of polymers and the different mechanisms involved), polymer physics (the semi-crystalline state, the thermal transitions in polymers, structure-property relationships) and the mechanical behaviour of macromolecules are also described. Surface tension, adsorption and surface activity, micelle formation and colloids: examples and applications. General description of the importance of physical and chemical properties of soft matter as applied in advanced materials.
  • 12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR3: per Biomaterials

    • Uno a scelta tra: Electromagnetic Materials and Electron Devices, Principles of Cellular Biology and Tissue Engineering, Spectroscopy of nanomaterials
    • Electromagnetic Materials and Electron Devices (12 cfu)

      • Electromagnetic Materials The course introduces the fundamental laws of electromagnetic fields, with the aim of devising electromagnetic properties of materials. The different configurations of the electromagnetic field propagating in various transmission lines are treated in details and then used for resorting to equivalent model representations of composite materials. Analysis of radiating structures and definition of parameters employed to characterize microwave devices are also addressed. Electron Devices The course covers the fundamental properties of the electron devices that represent the building blocks of modern electronic circuits and systems. After introducing the main concepts of electrical transport in semiconductors, the physics and the operation of the pn junction, the bipolar and the field effect transistors are treated in detail. Furthermore, we will discuss the effect of nanostructuring on the transport properties of materials and on device properties.
    • Spectroscopy of nanomaterials (12 cfu)

      • Emission, scattering, absorption properties of confined nano systems; experimental techniques, sources, detectors, spectrometers; Fourier and Raman spectroscopy; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; plasmonics from surface and localized resonances; survey of nano photonics devices; linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopies; optical microscopy beyond the diffraction limit; atomic and electrostatic force microscopy and spectroscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy.
    • Principles of Cellular Biology and Tissue Engineering (12 cfu)


  • 6 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR4: per Biomaterials

    • 6 CFU a scelta tra i seguenti:
    • Biofluids and materials Interactions (3 cfu)


    • Transport Phenomena in Materials (6 cfu)

      • This course deals with solid-state diffusion, homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions, and spinodal decomposition. Topics covered include: heat conduction in solids, convective and radiative heat transfer boundary conditions; fluid dynamics, 1-D solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, boundary layer theory, turbulent flow, and coupling with heat conduction and diffusion in fluids to calculate heat and mass transfer coefficients. Course outline The following aspects will be treated: 1. Mathematical Review Differential operators (gradient, divergence, curl, laplacian) and tensors in cartesian and curvilinear (spherical, cylindrical) coordinates. Eulerian and Lagrangian derivatives. 2. Momentum and Heat Transport in Materials Mass conservation: the continuity equation. Momentum flux and stress tensor. Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids. Momentum conservation: the motion equation and related boundary conditions. Bernoulli’s theorem. Flow fields in ducts and past solid bodies. Creeping and potential flow. Laminar and turbulent regimes. Heat flux: Fourier’s law. Energy conservation: the internal-energy equation. Velocity and temperature pertubations in bounded and unbounded systems. Adimensional transport equations and adimensional numbers. 3. Diffusion in Multi-Component Materials Average mass and molar velocity. Absolute and relative fluxes. Mass flux: diffusion mechanisms and generalized Fick’s law. Continuity, motion and internal-energy equations for multi-component systems in dimensional and adimensional forms. Concentration perturbations. 4. Numerical Methods for Transport Equations Finite-difference methods: consistency, convergence, stability. Overview of finite-element methods. 5. Illustrative Applications in Materials Science Flow problems in polymer technology. Anisotropic flows and orientation dynamics in liquid crystals. Heterogeneous catalysts: diffusion with chemical reaction, kinetic control.
    • Principles of Microfluidics (6 cfu)

      • 1. Fundamentals of fluid mechanics: newtonian fluids, Navier-Stokes equations; analysis of the flow in various regimes: inertial flows, irrotational flows, low-Reynolds-number (creeping) flows; boundary conditions. 2. Physical chemistry of surfaces: interfacial phenomena, capillarity; micro/nano particles in fluids: electrical interfaces in electrolyte solutions, electrical double layer, colloidal dispersions, micro-emulsions. 3. Fluid flows in confined geometries: flows in micro-pores; electro-osmotic flows; diffusio-osmotic flows; capillary flows, coating flows. Low-Reynolds-number flows of micro-particles (or micro-drops o micro-bubbles ) in fluids; micro-break-up of liquid jets, sprays; electrophoresis, diffusiophoresis, liquid flows driven by surface tension. Aggregation dynamics of colloidal particles with or without shear-flow: I e II Smoluchowski’s theory.
    • Disordered and off-Equilibrium Systems (6 cfu)

      • By the end of the course, students will have acquired a basic knowledge in the following areas: · Description and interpretation of disorder in liquids, colloids, glasses and polymers, · Dynamics and thermodynamics of the off-equilibrium systems, · Experimental techniques currently used in studies concerning structure and dynamics of disordered system Format: lectures, group learning projects
    • Green Chemistry for Materials and Processes (6 cfu)


    • Manufacturing of polymers and nanocomposites for biomedical application (3 cfu)


  • 9 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR1 per Biomaterials

    • 9 CFU among: Quantum Physics of Matter, Solid State Physics 1, Glass Transition and Surface Physics
    • Glass Transition (3 cfu)

      • The course discusses the transformation of non- crystallizable liquid and polymeric systems in amorphous solids. The student is introduced to the study of thermodynamic systems outside equilibrium through simple statistical models
    • Surface Physics (3 cfu)

      • The course consists of a general introduction to the physics of surfaces and interfaces that focuses on the concepts of basis rather than the specific details, and explore the physical phenomena that underpin the most important techniques and methods of analysis of surfaces.
    • Quantum Physics of Matter (6 cfu)

      • Introduction to quantum mechanics: Waves and particles. Wave-particle duality and uncertainty principle. Wave function. Schroedinger equation and stationary states. Expectation values. Atomic Physics: First atomic models and their shortcomings. Hydrogen atom: energy spectrum, angular momentum and eigenfunctions. Electron spin. Pauli exclusion principle. Helium atom, singlet and triplet states. Many-electron atoms, periodic system of elements. Atomic spectroscopy. Molecular physics: Adiabatic approximation. The ionized hydrogen molecule. The hydrogen molecule. Homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules.Polyatomic molecules. Molecular vibrations. Molecular Spectroscopy. Condensed matter physics: Structure of liquids, amorphous solids and crystals. X-ray diffraction. Types of crystals: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic. Boltzmann distribution, equipartition of energy. Quantum statistics: bosons and fermions. Phonons and specific heat of solids. Free electron model of metals: electrical conductivity and specific heat.
    • Solid State Physics 1 (6 cfu)

      • Electrons in a one-dimensional periodic potential. Electron tunneling through a periodic potential. Velocity, quasimomentum and effective mass of an electron in a band. Geometric description of crystals: direct and reciprocal lattices. Von Laue and Bragg scattering. The Drude electron gas. The theory of Sommerfeld. Energy and density of states of a two-and three-dimensional electron gas in a magnetic field. De Haas van Alphen effect. Landau diamagnetism and Pauli paramagnetism. Theory of harmonic crystal. Phonons. Optical properties of semiconductors and insulators. Charge transport in intrinsic and doped semiconductors. Fermi level in intrinsic semiconductors. Law of mass action. Donor and acceptor levels. Fermi level in doped semiconductors.
  • Secondo anno

  • Polymer Science and Engineering (6 cfu)

    • Molecular structure of polymers: thermoplastics and thermosets, definitions and types. Polymer chain flexibility. Chain conformations in polymers. Review of classical and statistical thermodynamics, configuration and conformation of isolated polymer chains, the rotational isomeric state model, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of polymer solutions, scaling theory, single chain dynamics, scattering (light, x-ray, neutron).Rubber elasticity. Amorphous state and glass transition. Free volume theory &Tg. Crystalline state and crystallization.
      Thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and thermomechanical analysis) is explained, together with brief description of instruments and data analysis. Characterization of orientation, morphology, superstructure in polymers using x-ray, light scattering, birefringence, dichroism. Crystallography, unit cell determination. Spectroscopy theory. UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Infra-Red Spectroscopy. NMR spectroscopy.
      Definitions of Polymer Processing. Extrusion lines. Injection molding processes. Blow molding Processes. Application of Rheology in Polymer Processing: Simple die and injection mold design. Screw types and definitions. Screw design: metering zone. Isothermal and adiabatic extrusion equations.

  • Tirocinio (15 cfu)


  • Prova finale (15 cfu)


  • 12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo LIBERA SCELTA: Attività a libera scelta per Biomaterials

    • 12 cfu a scelta tra gli esami indicati e gli esami degli altri indirizzi
    • Bioinformatics (6 cfu)


    • Smart Polymers in Nanomedicine (3 cfu)


    • Composite Materials Science and Engineering (6 cfu)

      • Fibers and Matrices. Micromechanics of composites: Longitudinal behavior of unidirectional composites; Transverse Properties; Shear properties and poison ratio. Stress concentration, fracture and fracture mechanisms of composites. Thermal Expansion Coefficients. Short Fiber Reinforced Composites. Polymeric Foams. Adhesion and adhesive. Rheological behavior of thermosets, vulcanization of rubbers, time-temperature-transition relationships in thermosets. Fabrication of the composites. Reaction injection molding, compression/transfer molding, pultrusion. Advanced CeramicMatrix Composite Materials (CMCs): carbon/carbon (C/C), carbon/silicon carbide (C/SiC), silicon carbide/silicon carbide composites, LSI, PIP, CVI technologies.
    • Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media (6 cfu)

      • Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media. Obiettiviformativi:The course reviews the constitutive parameters of classical materials and introduces the methods for retrieving these parameters from measurements. Complex materials obtained with inclusions of dielectric or metallic particles into homogeneous media are addressed. Theory of wave propagation in complex media are presented and applied to metamaterial transmission lines and periodic structures.
    • Materials and Devices for Nanoscale Electronics (6 cfu)

      • The course focuses on the relationship between materials and the development of nanoelectronic devices. Starting from an analysis of the main characteristics of CMOS scaling and the role played by advanced materials in furthering Moore's law in the last decade, the role of emerging device concepts and the way they are enabled by novel material systems will then be introduced. Practical case studies and design examples will be discussed.
    • Polymeric Materials for Special Applications (6 cfu)

      • The course aims at providing a wide understanding of modern science and technology of polymeric materials with the principal objective of achieving a good knowledge of the chemical fundamentals of the design, preparation and application of polymers in a variety of advanced applications. Main topics will deal with: -Basic principles of the industrial chemistry of polymers, mainly synthetic polymers as well as natural polymers. -Special features concerned with the molecular design, preparation and characterization of polymers starting from both petrochemicals, fine chemicals and chemicals from renewable resources. -Analysis of the main physical-chemical properties, in view of current and prospective uses in e.g. optical and photonic devices, liquid crystalline fibers and composites, high performance and engineering plastics, environmentally friendly and biodegradable polymer systems. The student will learn criteria for selection of more actual and profitable products and processes and will know how to tackle the current issues associated with science and technology for industrial production and its social-economical and environmental impact. He/she will be able to define structure-reactivity and structure-property relationships for special polymers in view of their practical performance in specific application fields.
    • Advanced Ceramics and Smart Glasses (6 cfu)

      • Ceramic introduction: general properties, classification of ceramics (traditional and advanced ceramics), oxides, non-oxides and composites, amorphous and crystalline. Ceramic microstructures: crystal chemistry, bond energy and properties. Types of imperfections in ceramics, Frenkel and Schottky defects, Kroger-Vink notation. Ceramic microstructures: XRD and ceramic applications. Main properties of ceramic materials: porosity, mechanical - thermal, chemical and functional properties. Structure-properties correlations. Ceramic phase diagrams. Ceramic production processes. Mixing, grinding, homogenization, wet and dry processing. Forming/shaping process: powder pressing, wet molding, casting and extrusion. Main characterization techniques for ceramic materials. Sintering: theory and applications. Advanced Ceramics and ceramic matrix composite: examples and applications (structural, biomedical, aerospace...). Ceramic Composite Manufacturing (Liquid, solid and gas route). Toughening Mechanism of CMC. Ceramic Matrix composites applications. Microwave assisted chemical vapour infiltration of silicon carbide composites. Theoretical and practical explanation. Zirconia-based ceramics. Zirconia powder production process. Aging, forming, heating and zirconia applications. Nanoceramics. Nanoceramics for biomedical applications. Smart glasses. Smart glasses characterization.
    • Computational mechanics of materials (6 cfu)


    • Fundamentals of biophysics at the nanoscale (6 cfu)


    • Introduction to Molecular Biophysics (6 cfu)

      • The course will introduce to basic concepts such as the structure of biomolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, cofactors, lipids) and their functions (structural proteins, enzymes, receptors, membrane proteins; Nucleic acids: storage and transfer of information genetics; cell membrane components). Experimental methods for molecular spectroscopy (electronic spectroscopy: UV / vis absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence and phosphorescence; Vibrational spectroscopy of biomolecules: IR and Raman) and structural investigation (X-ray crystallography, NMR and electron microscopy) will be also presented. Part of the course will be focused to the biomolecular modeling: all atom models, quantum mechanical methods (QM), molecular mechanics and empirical force fields, molecular and accelerated dynamics (replication exchange and metadynamics) and some application to prediction and design of protein structures. The general concepts underlying the multiscale models are also illustrated: PES / FES, collective variables, coarse-grained models, elastic network and Go models, implicit solvent models, implicit membrane models, other “continuous” models. Finally, some applications will be introduced regarding: membrane receptors and the transmission of nervous signals, bio-non-bio interfaces (eg functionalized nanoparticles), structure and photophysics of fluorescent proteins.
    • Cell Biophysics (6 cfu)

      • The course revealing the physical bases permeating the complex physical systems that make up the simplest life’s unit, the cell. In particular: - thermodynamics of biological systems far of equilibrium and the role of natural selection - nanoscale structures as platforms for biological processes and their regulation - application of experimental physical techniques to the study of intracellular physical processes, with particular regard to optical microscopy / nanoscopy
    • Physics of Bio-systems (9 cfu)

      • The course will focus on the physics relevant for active matter, starting from the understanding of the mechanisms regulating the processes in "model" biological systems to get to the characterization of "bio-inspired" systems and biomimetic materials, introducing new models and approaches of strong relevance in materials science. Attention will be given to structures, symmetries, molecular interactions, self-assembly processes, mechanical and mechano-sensitive properties of biological systems relevant in the development of innovative actuators and materials. The most recent imaging techniques in the field of fluorescence and super-resolution optical microscopy will be covered, along with their applications to the study of processes and of the molecular interactions in relevant biological systems.
  • 12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR5: per Biomaterials

    • Due a scelta tra: Electron Microscopy of Nanomaterials, Medical Imaging and Biosensors (ionising and non-ionising), Multi-scale Modelling in Materials Design, Nanomedicine and Regenerative Medicine
    • Electron Microscopy of Nanomaterials (6 cfu)

      • ....
    • Nanomedicine and Regenerative Medicine (6 cfu)


    • Medical Imaging and Biosensors (ionising and non-ionising) (6 cfu)


    • Multi-scale Modelling in Materials Design (6 cfu)


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