# MATERIALS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

Corso di laurea magistrale

## Piano di Studi

## Curricula:

## NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

### Primo anno

Mechanical Behaviour of Materials (6 cfu)

- This course will examine how the microstructure of a material determines its mechanical behaviour ranging from the continuum description of properties to the atomistic and molecular mechanisms that confer those properties to all materials. We will cover elastic and plastic deformation, creep, fracture and fatigue of materials including crystalline and amorphous metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and (bio)polymers, and will focus on the design and processing of materials from the atomic to the macroscale to achieve desired mechanical behavior.

Topics include:

• Introduction to deformation behaviour: Concept of stresses and strains, engineering stresses and strains, Different types of loading and temperature encountered in applications, Tensile Test - stress-strain response for metal, ceramic and polymer, elastic region, yield point, plastic deformation, necking and fracture, Bonding and Material Behaviour, theoretical estimates of yield strength in metals and ceramics.

• Elasticity (the State of Stress and strain, stress and strain tensor, tensor transformation, principal stress and strain, elastic stress-strain relation, anisotropy, elastic behaviour of metals, ceramics and polymers.).

• Viscoelasticity (Molecular foundations of polymer viscoelasticity. Rouse-Bueche theory, Boltzmann superposition principle, mechanical models, distribution of relaxation and retardation times, interrelationships between mechanical spectra, the glass transition, secondary relaxations, dielectric relaxations).

• Plasticity (Hydrostatic and Deviatoric stress, Octahedral stress, yield criteria and yield surface, texture and distortion of yield surface, Limitation of engineering strain at large deformation, true stress and true strain, effective stress, effective strain, flow rules, strain hardening, Ramberg-Osgood equation, stress -strain relation in plasticity, plastic deformation of metals and polymers).

• Microscopic view of plastic deformation: crystals and defects, classification of defects, thermodynamics of defects, geometry of dislocations, slip and glide, dislocation generation - Frank Read and grain boundary sources, stress and strain field around dislocations, force on dislocation - self-stress, dislocation interactions, partial dislocations, twinning, dislocation movement and strain rate, deformation behavior of single crystal, critical resolved shear stress (CRSS), deformation of poly-crystals - Hall-Petch and other hardening mechanisms, grain size effect - source limited plasticity, Hall-Petch breakdown, dislocations in ceramics and glasses.

• Effects of microstructure on the mechanics of polymeric media: deformation modes, yield, rubber toughening, alloys and blends.

• Fracture mechanics (energetics of fracture growth, plasticity at the fracture tip, measurement of fracture toughness, - Linear fracture mechanics -KIC, elasto-plastic fracture mechanics - JIC, Measurement and ASTM standards, Design based on fracture mechanics, effect of environment, effect of microstructure on KIC and JIC, application of fracture mechanics in the design of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites, damage tolerance design, elements of fractography).

• Fatigue (S-N curves, low- and high-cycle fatigue, laboratory testing in fatigue, residual stress, surface and environmental effects, fatigue of cracked components, designing out fatigue failure,Life cycle prediction, Fatigue in metals, ceramics, polymers and composites)

• Creep in crystalline materials (stress-strain-time relationship, creep testing, different stages of creep, creep mechanisms and creep mechanism maps, diffusion, creep and stress rupture, creep under multi-axial loading,microstructural aspects of creep and design of creep resistant alloys, high temperature deformation of ceramics and polymers)

- This course will examine how the microstructure of a material determines its mechanical behaviour ranging from the continuum description of properties to the atomistic and molecular mechanisms that confer those properties to all materials. We will cover elastic and plastic deformation, creep, fracture and fatigue of materials including crystalline and amorphous metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and (bio)polymers, and will focus on the design and processing of materials from the atomic to the macroscale to achieve desired mechanical behavior.
6 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR3: Discipline Chimiche e Fisiche

- UNo a scelta tra: Computational Materials Science e Chemistry of Soft Matter
Computational Materials Science (6 cfu)

- Quantum mechanical approaches, Density Functional Theory, many-body approaches. Multiscale approaches: quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics, coarse graining, polarizable continua. Electronic properties. Excited electronic states and UV-vis spectroscopy.
Vibrations, IR and Raman spectroscopy. Dynamicaleffects.

- Quantum mechanical approaches, Density Functional Theory, many-body approaches. Multiscale approaches: quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics, coarse graining, polarizable continua. Electronic properties. Excited electronic states and UV-vis spectroscopy.
Vibrations, IR and Raman spectroscopy. Dynamicaleffects.
Chemistry of Soft Matter (6 cfu)

- The course aims at:
-Understanding the general concepts of the chemistry of polymers, colloids and interfaces.
-Knowing key methods of polymerisation, and their applicability in soft matter.
-Explaining the polymeric properties, and the methods utilised to assess these properties.
-Explaining the relationships between polymer preparation, structure and properties.
-Describing the applications of polymers and understanding which polymers are suitable for which applications.
Course outline
Fundamentals of soft polymeric materials with special emphasis on the definition, classification, structure of monomers and polymers, their tacticity and molecular weight. Polymer chemistry (synthesis of polymers and the different mechanisms involved), polymer physics (the semi-crystalline state, the thermal transitions in polymers, structure-property relationships) and the mechanical behaviour of macromolecules are also described. Surface tension, adsorption and surface activity, micelle formation and colloids: examples and applications. General description of the importance of physical and chemical properties of soft matter as applied in advanced materials.

- The course aims at:
-Understanding the general concepts of the chemistry of polymers, colloids and interfaces.
-Knowing key methods of polymerisation, and their applicability in soft matter.
-Explaining the polymeric properties, and the methods utilised to assess these properties.
-Explaining the relationships between polymer preparation, structure and properties.
-Describing the applications of polymers and understanding which polymers are suitable for which applications.
Course outline
Fundamentals of soft polymeric materials with special emphasis on the definition, classification, structure of monomers and polymers, their tacticity and molecular weight. Polymer chemistry (synthesis of polymers and the different mechanisms involved), polymer physics (the semi-crystalline state, the thermal transitions in polymers, structure-property relationships) and the mechanical behaviour of macromolecules are also described. Surface tension, adsorption and surface activity, micelle formation and colloids: examples and applications. General description of the importance of physical and chemical properties of soft matter as applied in advanced materials.

6 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR4: Discipline dell'ingegneria

- Uno a scelta tra: Biomaterials, Transport Phenomena in Materials e Electron Microscopy of Nanomaterials
Transport Phenomena in Materials (6 cfu)

- This course deals with solid-state diffusion, homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions, and spinodal decomposition. Topics covered include: heat conduction in solids, convective and radiative heat transfer boundary conditions; fluid dynamics, 1-D solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, boundary layer theory, turbulent flow, and coupling with heat conduction and diffusion in fluids to calculate heat and mass transfer coefficients.
Course outline
The following aspects will be treated:
1. Mathematical Review
Differential operators (gradient, divergence, curl, laplacian) and tensors in cartesian and curvilinear (spherical, cylindrical) coordinates. Eulerian and Lagrangian derivatives.
2. Momentum and Heat Transport in Materials
Mass conservation: the continuity equation. Momentum flux and stress tensor. Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids. Momentum conservation: the motion equation and related boundary conditions. Bernoulli’s theorem. Flow fields in ducts and past solid bodies. Creeping and potential flow. Laminar and turbulent regimes. Heat flux: Fourier’s law. Energy conservation: the internal-energy equation. Velocity and temperature pertubations in bounded and unbounded systems. Adimensional transport equations and adimensional numbers.
3. Diffusion in Multi-Component Materials
Average mass and molar velocity. Absolute and relative fluxes. Mass flux: diffusion mechanisms and generalized Fick’s law. Continuity, motion and internal-energy equations for multi-component systems in dimensional and adimensional forms. Concentration perturbations.
4. Numerical Methods for Transport Equations
Finite-difference methods: consistency, convergence, stability. Overview of finite-element methods.
5. Illustrative Applications in Materials Science
Flow problems in polymer technology. Anisotropic flows and orientation dynamics in liquid crystals. Heterogeneous catalysts: diffusion with chemical reaction, kinetic control.

- This course deals with solid-state diffusion, homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions, and spinodal decomposition. Topics covered include: heat conduction in solids, convective and radiative heat transfer boundary conditions; fluid dynamics, 1-D solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, boundary layer theory, turbulent flow, and coupling with heat conduction and diffusion in fluids to calculate heat and mass transfer coefficients.
Course outline
The following aspects will be treated:
1. Mathematical Review
Differential operators (gradient, divergence, curl, laplacian) and tensors in cartesian and curvilinear (spherical, cylindrical) coordinates. Eulerian and Lagrangian derivatives.
2. Momentum and Heat Transport in Materials
Mass conservation: the continuity equation. Momentum flux and stress tensor. Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids. Momentum conservation: the motion equation and related boundary conditions. Bernoulli’s theorem. Flow fields in ducts and past solid bodies. Creeping and potential flow. Laminar and turbulent regimes. Heat flux: Fourier’s law. Energy conservation: the internal-energy equation. Velocity and temperature pertubations in bounded and unbounded systems. Adimensional transport equations and adimensional numbers.
3. Diffusion in Multi-Component Materials
Average mass and molar velocity. Absolute and relative fluxes. Mass flux: diffusion mechanisms and generalized Fick’s law. Continuity, motion and internal-energy equations for multi-component systems in dimensional and adimensional forms. Concentration perturbations.
4. Numerical Methods for Transport Equations
Finite-difference methods: consistency, convergence, stability. Overview of finite-element methods.
5. Illustrative Applications in Materials Science
Flow problems in polymer technology. Anisotropic flows and orientation dynamics in liquid crystals. Heterogeneous catalysts: diffusion with chemical reaction, kinetic control.
Biomaterials (6 cfu)

- This course of Biomaterials is designed to provide a general understanding of the multidisciplinary field of biomaterials, and to give a key focus on new products arising from nanotechnology. Specifically, it aims at developing in the attendants all the necessary skills as well as the fundamental theoretical and technical competences with the ultimate goal to have graduated students who can successfully interface with the multidisciplinary scenario of biomaterials-related products and technologies, both in industrial and research environments. The current and innovative applications of biomaterials will be evaluated to highlight the connections existing between material properties, function, biological responses and clinical applications. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of this topic, both teamwork and self-learning will be stimulated.
After the completion of the course, the students will be able to:
• Understand the interaction between biomaterials and biologic systems,
• Understand the fundamental principles of biomaterials and their properties,
• Know the advanced biofabrication techniques (from macro-to-nanoscale),
• Know the modern analytical and imaging techniques for characterization of biomaterials,
• Know the most important regulatory aspects for clinical translation,
• Demonstrate effective communication and teamwork skills through technical presentations and reports,
• Demonstrate capability of to understand the scientific literature.
Contents
Biocompatibility and material-cell/tissue/organ interactions. Classes of materials used in medicine (synthetic and biologic polymers, metals, ceramics, composites, graft tissues). Properties of materials (chemical, physical, mechanical, architectural, surface). Exploiting biomaterial properties for medical purposes. Advanced biofabrication techniques (nano and microfiber manufacturing, nanoparticle and nanotube synthesis). Techniques for biomaterials characterization. Biological testing of biomaterials. Application of materials in medicine, biology and artificial organs: tissue engineering, drug delivery, nanomedicine. Regulatory aspects involving biomaterial devices.

- This course of Biomaterials is designed to provide a general understanding of the multidisciplinary field of biomaterials, and to give a key focus on new products arising from nanotechnology. Specifically, it aims at developing in the attendants all the necessary skills as well as the fundamental theoretical and technical competences with the ultimate goal to have graduated students who can successfully interface with the multidisciplinary scenario of biomaterials-related products and technologies, both in industrial and research environments. The current and innovative applications of biomaterials will be evaluated to highlight the connections existing between material properties, function, biological responses and clinical applications. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of this topic, both teamwork and self-learning will be stimulated.
After the completion of the course, the students will be able to:
• Understand the interaction between biomaterials and biologic systems,
• Understand the fundamental principles of biomaterials and their properties,
• Know the advanced biofabrication techniques (from macro-to-nanoscale),
• Know the modern analytical and imaging techniques for characterization of biomaterials,
• Know the most important regulatory aspects for clinical translation,
• Demonstrate effective communication and teamwork skills through technical presentations and reports,
• Demonstrate capability of to understand the scientific literature.
Contents
Biocompatibility and material-cell/tissue/organ interactions. Classes of materials used in medicine (synthetic and biologic polymers, metals, ceramics, composites, graft tissues). Properties of materials (chemical, physical, mechanical, architectural, surface). Exploiting biomaterial properties for medical purposes. Advanced biofabrication techniques (nano and microfiber manufacturing, nanoparticle and nanotube synthesis). Techniques for biomaterials characterization. Biological testing of biomaterials. Application of materials in medicine, biology and artificial organs: tissue engineering, drug delivery, nanomedicine. Regulatory aspects involving biomaterial devices.
Electron Microscopy of Nanomaterials (6 cfu)

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9 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR1: Discipline Chimiche e Fisiche

- Uno a sceta tra: Quantum and condensed matter physics e -Solid State Physics
Quantum and condensed matter physics (9 cfu)

- Wave-particleduality and uncertaintyprinciple. Schroedingerequation. Onedimensionalmotion.
Hydrogen atom. Spin. Polyelectronic atoms. Atomic spectroscopy.
Hydrogen molecule. Polyatomic molecules. Rotations and vibrations of molecules. Molecular spectroscopy.
Thermal equilibrium and statistical distributions. Types of solids. Free electron model of metals. Phonons. Electronic energy bands and Bloch wavefunctions. Semiconductors. Transportproperties. Optical properties

- Wave-particleduality and uncertaintyprinciple. Schroedingerequation. Onedimensionalmotion.
Hydrogen atom. Spin. Polyelectronic atoms. Atomic spectroscopy.
Hydrogen molecule. Polyatomic molecules. Rotations and vibrations of molecules. Molecular spectroscopy.
Thermal equilibrium and statistical distributions. Types of solids. Free electron model of metals. Phonons. Electronic energy bands and Bloch wavefunctions. Semiconductors. Transportproperties. Optical properties
Solid State Physics (9 cfu)

- Electrons in a one dimensional periodic potential. Geometrical description of crystals: direct and reciprocal lattice. Electron gas. Electronic energy levels in solids. Lattice dynamics. Optical properties of semiconductors and insulators. Fundamentals of semiconductor physics.

- Electrons in a one dimensional periodic potential. Geometrical description of crystals: direct and reciprocal lattice. Electron gas. Electronic energy levels in solids. Lattice dynamics. Optical properties of semiconductors and insulators. Fundamentals of semiconductor physics.

9 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR2: Discipline Chimiche e fisiche

- Uno a scelta tra: Nanostructured Materials e Quantum Optics Lab
Nanostructured Materials (9 cfu)

- Synthesis and fabrication techniques of nanostructured materials. Morphological, electronic, chemical, compositional, structural and optical properties of semiconductor and carbon-based nanostructures; characterization techniques.

- Synthesis and fabrication techniques of nanostructured materials. Morphological, electronic, chemical, compositional, structural and optical properties of semiconductor and carbon-based nanostructures; characterization techniques.
Quantum Optics Lab (9 cfu)

- Electromagnetic propagation in homogeneous media. Polarisation of an electromagnetic wave. Laws of reflection and refraction. Interference. Optical Fibres.

- Electromagnetic propagation in homogeneous media. Polarisation of an electromagnetic wave. Laws of reflection and refraction. Interference. Optical Fibres.

12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR6

- Due a scelta tra: Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media, Materials in Nanoscale Electronics e Solid State Physicochemical Methods
Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media (6 cfu)

- Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media.
Obiettiviformativi:The course reviews the constitutive parameters of classical materials and introduces the methods for retrieving these parameters from measurements. Complex materials obtained with inclusions of dielectric or metallic particles into homogeneous media are addressed. Theory of wave propagation in complex media are presented and applied to metamaterial transmission lines and periodic structures.

- Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media.
Obiettiviformativi:The course reviews the constitutive parameters of classical materials and introduces the methods for retrieving these parameters from measurements. Complex materials obtained with inclusions of dielectric or metallic particles into homogeneous media are addressed. Theory of wave propagation in complex media are presented and applied to metamaterial transmission lines and periodic structures.
Materials and Devices for Nanoscale Electronics (6 cfu)

- The course focuses on the relationship between materials and the development of nanoelectronic devices. Starting from an analysis of the main characteristics of CMOS scaling and the role played by advanced materials in furthering Moore's law in the last decade, the role of emerging device concepts and the way they are enabled by novel material systems will then be introduced. Practical case studies and design examples will be discussed.

- The course focuses on the relationship between materials and the development of nanoelectronic devices. Starting from an analysis of the main characteristics of CMOS scaling and the role played by advanced materials in furthering Moore's law in the last decade, the role of emerging device concepts and the way they are enabled by novel material systems will then be introduced. Practical case studies and design examples will be discussed.
Solid State Physicochemical Methods (6 cfu)

- This course deals with subjects of molecular spectroscopy which have a fundamental importance for the characterization of materials. Its aim consists in giving to the students a basis concerning the physicochemical aspects of the most important spectroscopic techniques, as well as an overview of their possible applications.
Course outline
The following aspects will be treated:
Basics of molecular spectroscopy: the electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetic radiations and their interaction with molecules (absorption, emission, scattering), energy levels and different types of transitions, etc.
Hints on several bulk spectroscopic techniques: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Mossbauer, etc.
Solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: the nuclear spin, nuclear interactions, basics theory, peculiarities of the solid state, different techniques and their applications to the study of structure and dynamics of different classes of materials.
Physico-chemical methods for the study of the surfaces of materials will also be treated, as for instance Raman scattering and photoelectronic spectroscopies.

- This course deals with subjects of molecular spectroscopy which have a fundamental importance for the characterization of materials. Its aim consists in giving to the students a basis concerning the physicochemical aspects of the most important spectroscopic techniques, as well as an overview of their possible applications.
Course outline
The following aspects will be treated:
Basics of molecular spectroscopy: the electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetic radiations and their interaction with molecules (absorption, emission, scattering), energy levels and different types of transitions, etc.
Hints on several bulk spectroscopic techniques: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Mossbauer, etc.
Solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: the nuclear spin, nuclear interactions, basics theory, peculiarities of the solid state, different techniques and their applications to the study of structure and dynamics of different classes of materials.
Physico-chemical methods for the study of the surfaces of materials will also be treated, as for instance Raman scattering and photoelectronic spectroscopies.

12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR5

- Uno a scelta tra: Electromagnetic Materials and Electron Devices e Spectroscopy of nanomaterials
Electromagnetic Materials and Electron Devices (12 cfu)

- Electromagnetic Materials
The course introduces the fundamental laws of electromagnetic fields, with the aim of devising electromagnetic properties of materials. The different configurations of the electromagnetic field propagating in various transmission lines are treated in details and then used for resorting to equivalent model representations of composite materials. Analysis of radiating structures and definition of parameters employed to characterize microwave devices are also addressed.
Electron Devices
The course covers the fundamental properties of the electron devices that represent the building blocks of modern electronic circuits and systems. After introducing the main concepts of electrical transport in semiconductors, the physics and the operation of the pn junction, the bipolar and the field effect transistors are treated in detail. Furthermore, we will discuss the effect of nanostructuring on the transport properties of materials and on device properties.

- Electromagnetic Materials
The course introduces the fundamental laws of electromagnetic fields, with the aim of devising electromagnetic properties of materials. The different configurations of the electromagnetic field propagating in various transmission lines are treated in details and then used for resorting to equivalent model representations of composite materials. Analysis of radiating structures and definition of parameters employed to characterize microwave devices are also addressed.
Electron Devices
The course covers the fundamental properties of the electron devices that represent the building blocks of modern electronic circuits and systems. After introducing the main concepts of electrical transport in semiconductors, the physics and the operation of the pn junction, the bipolar and the field effect transistors are treated in detail. Furthermore, we will discuss the effect of nanostructuring on the transport properties of materials and on device properties.
Spectroscopy of nanomaterials (12 cfu)

- Emission, scattering, absorption properties of confined nano systems; experimental techniques, sources, detectors, spectrometers; Fourier and Raman spectroscopy; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; plasmonics from surface and localized resonances; survey of nano photonics devices; linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopies; optical microscopy beyond the diffraction limit; atomic and electrostatic force microscopy and spectroscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy.

- Emission, scattering, absorption properties of confined nano systems; experimental techniques, sources, detectors, spectrometers; Fourier and Raman spectroscopy; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; plasmonics from surface and localized resonances; survey of nano photonics devices; linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopies; optical microscopy beyond the diffraction limit; atomic and electrostatic force microscopy and spectroscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy.

Polymer Science and Engineering (6 cfu)

- Molecular structure of polymers: thermoplastics and thermosets, definitions and types. Polymer chain flexibility. Chain conformations in polymers. Review of classical and statistical thermodynamics, configuration and conformation of isolated polymer chains, the rotational isomeric state model, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of polymer solutions, scaling theory, single chain dynamics, scattering (light, x-ray, neutron).Rubber elasticity. Amorphous state and glass transition. Free volume theory &Tg. Crystalline state and crystallization.

Thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and thermomechanical analysis) is explained, together with brief description of instruments and data analysis. Characterization of orientation, morphology, superstructure in polymers using x-ray, light scattering, birefringence, dichroism. Crystallography, unit cell determination. Spectroscopy theory. UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Infra-Red Spectroscopy. NMR spectroscopy.

Definitions of Polymer Processing. Extrusion lines. Injection molding processes. Blow molding Processes. Application of Rheology in Polymer Processing: Simple die and injection mold design. Screw types and definitions. Screw design: metering zone. Isothermal and adiabatic extrusion equations.

- Molecular structure of polymers: thermoplastics and thermosets, definitions and types. Polymer chain flexibility. Chain conformations in polymers. Review of classical and statistical thermodynamics, configuration and conformation of isolated polymer chains, the rotational isomeric state model, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of polymer solutions, scaling theory, single chain dynamics, scattering (light, x-ray, neutron).Rubber elasticity. Amorphous state and glass transition. Free volume theory &Tg. Crystalline state and crystallization.
Tirocinio (15 cfu)

Prova finale (15 cfu)

Computational Nanoelectronics and Metamaterials (6 cfu)

- Metamaterials

Through the investigation of the theoretical aspects of engineered composite materials, the course analyzes the innovative concepts used by state-of-the art devices. Examples of applications of metamaterial-based devices are illustrated and deeply analyzed. In particular, artificial impedance surfaces, innovative radiating structures and EM absorbing surfaces are presented.

Computational Nanoelectronics

Multi-scale approaches will be introduced, for the investigation of the physical properties of conventional (Silicon, III-V semiconductors) as well as new materials (graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, etc.) for electron devices. In particular, we will discuss atomistic models and associated numerical methods for the evaluation of the main mechanisms at play in carrier transport. Such an approach will be exploited to eventually assess device performance against industry requirements.

- Metamaterials
12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR10: Attività a libera scelta

- 12 cfu a scelta tra gli esami indicati e gli altri esami di entrambi gli indirizzi
Glass Transition (3 cfu)

- The course discusses the transformation of non- crystallizable liquid and polymeric systems in amorphous solids. The student is introduced to the study of thermodynamic systems outside equilibrium through simple statistical models

- The course discusses the transformation of non- crystallizable liquid and polymeric systems in amorphous solids. The student is introduced to the study of thermodynamic systems outside equilibrium through simple statistical models
Surface Physics (3 cfu)

- The course consists of a general introduction to the physics of surfaces and interfaces that focuses on the concepts of basis rather than the specific details, and explore the physical phenomena that underpin the most important techniques and methods of analysis of surfaces.

- The course consists of a general introduction to the physics of surfaces and interfaces that focuses on the concepts of basis rather than the specific details, and explore the physical phenomena that underpin the most important techniques and methods of analysis of surfaces.
Biosensors (6 cfu)

Computational Nanosciences (6 cfu)

Cyber-Physical Systems (6 cfu)

- New architecture for the integration of processing, storage and network (Network Function Visualization and Software Defined Networking). Coordination between physical and virtual space (Cloud Networking, Fog/Edge Computing). Convergence among computation, communication and control. Embedded systems, sensors, actuators. Industrial internet and protocol stacks for industrial networks of sensors and actuators. Tools for simulation and emulation. Hands-on activities in an industrial IoT scenario.

- New architecture for the integration of processing, storage and network (Network Function Visualization and Software Defined Networking). Coordination between physical and virtual space (Cloud Networking, Fog/Edge Computing). Convergence among computation, communication and control. Embedded systems, sensors, actuators. Industrial internet and protocol stacks for industrial networks of sensors and actuators. Tools for simulation and emulation. Hands-on activities in an industrial IoT scenario.
Principles of Microfluidics (6 cfu)

- 1. Fundamentals of fluid mechanics: newtonian fluids, Navier-Stokes equations; analysis of the flow in various regimes: inertial flows, irrotational flows, low-Reynolds-number (creeping) flows; boundary conditions.
2. Physical chemistry of surfaces: interfacial phenomena, capillarity; micro/nano particles in fluids: electrical interfaces in electrolyte solutions, electrical double layer, colloidal dispersions, micro-emulsions.
3. Fluid flows in confined geometries: flows in micro-pores; electro-osmotic flows; diffusio-osmotic flows; capillary flows, coating flows. Low-Reynolds-number flows of micro-particles (or micro-drops o micro-bubbles ) in fluids; micro-break-up of liquid jets, sprays; electrophoresis, diffusiophoresis, liquid flows driven by surface tension. Aggregation dynamics of colloidal particles with or without shear-flow: I e II Smoluchowski’s theory.

- 1. Fundamentals of fluid mechanics: newtonian fluids, Navier-Stokes equations; analysis of the flow in various regimes: inertial flows, irrotational flows, low-Reynolds-number (creeping) flows; boundary conditions.
2. Physical chemistry of surfaces: interfacial phenomena, capillarity; micro/nano particles in fluids: electrical interfaces in electrolyte solutions, electrical double layer, colloidal dispersions, micro-emulsions.
3. Fluid flows in confined geometries: flows in micro-pores; electro-osmotic flows; diffusio-osmotic flows; capillary flows, coating flows. Low-Reynolds-number flows of micro-particles (or micro-drops o micro-bubbles ) in fluids; micro-break-up of liquid jets, sprays; electrophoresis, diffusiophoresis, liquid flows driven by surface tension. Aggregation dynamics of colloidal particles with or without shear-flow: I e II Smoluchowski’s theory.
Materials for Electronics and Optoelectronics (6 cfu)

- Technologies and devices for electronic and optoelectronic circuits at a large scale of integration. Compatibility with incumbent semiconductor technologies. Industrial applications in different market segments.

- Technologies and devices for electronic and optoelectronic circuits at a large scale of integration. Compatibility with incumbent semiconductor technologies. Industrial applications in different market segments.

6 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR9: Discipline chimiche e fisiche

- Uno a scelta tra: Biophysics, Many Body Physics, Photonics e Quantum Theory of Solids
Quantum Theory of Solids (6 cfu)

- Electronic states in solids: the approximation to an electron and its overcoming. Excitons, plasmons and screen dielectric crystals. Born- Oppenheimer approximation. Hellmann - Feynman theorem and its application to the calculation of forces on the nuclei. Phase definition of Berry. Superconductivity.

- Electronic states in solids: the approximation to an electron and its overcoming. Excitons, plasmons and screen dielectric crystals. Born- Oppenheimer approximation. Hellmann - Feynman theorem and its application to the calculation of forces on the nuclei. Phase definition of Berry. Superconductivity.
Photonics (6 cfu)

Many Body Physics (6 cfu)

- Hartree - Fock theory, the electron gas, metallic clusters, quantum dots, equation of Gross - Pitaevskii , Hartree-Fock - Bogoliubov and BCS theory, density functional theory and linear response theory.

- Hartree - Fock theory, the electron gas, metallic clusters, quantum dots, equation of Gross - Pitaevskii , Hartree-Fock - Bogoliubov and BCS theory, density functional theory and linear response theory.
Biophysics (6 cfu)

- The course provides the basic elements of cell biophysics, and describes the spectroscopic and microscopic (Confocal and atomic force) and molecular dynamics with applications to the physiological systems and the nano - biomedicine.

- The course provides the basic elements of cell biophysics, and describes the spectroscopic and microscopic (Confocal and atomic force) and molecular dynamics with applications to the physiological systems and the nano - biomedicine.

Mechanical Behaviour of Materials (6 cfu)

- This course will examine how the microstructure of a material determines its mechanical behaviour ranging from the continuum description of properties to the atomistic and molecular mechanisms that confer those properties to all materials. We will cover elastic and plastic deformation, creep, fracture and fatigue of materials including crystalline and amorphous metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and (bio)polymers, and will focus on the design and processing of materials from the atomic to the macroscale to achieve desired mechanical behavior.

Topics include:

• Introduction to deformation behaviour: Concept of stresses and strains, engineering stresses and strains, Different types of loading and temperature encountered in applications, Tensile Test - stress-strain response for metal, ceramic and polymer, elastic region, yield point, plastic deformation, necking and fracture, Bonding and Material Behaviour, theoretical estimates of yield strength in metals and ceramics.

• Elasticity (the State of Stress and strain, stress and strain tensor, tensor transformation, principal stress and strain, elastic stress-strain relation, anisotropy, elastic behaviour of metals, ceramics and polymers.).

• Viscoelasticity (Molecular foundations of polymer viscoelasticity. Rouse-Bueche theory, Boltzmann superposition principle, mechanical models, distribution of relaxation and retardation times, interrelationships between mechanical spectra, the glass transition, secondary relaxations, dielectric relaxations).

• Plasticity (Hydrostatic and Deviatoric stress, Octahedral stress, yield criteria and yield surface, texture and distortion of yield surface, Limitation of engineering strain at large deformation, true stress and true strain, effective stress, effective strain, flow rules, strain hardening, Ramberg-Osgood equation, stress -strain relation in plasticity, plastic deformation of metals and polymers).

• Microscopic view of plastic deformation: crystals and defects, classification of defects, thermodynamics of defects, geometry of dislocations, slip and glide, dislocation generation - Frank Read and grain boundary sources, stress and strain field around dislocations, force on dislocation - self-stress, dislocation interactions, partial dislocations, twinning, dislocation movement and strain rate, deformation behavior of single crystal, critical resolved shear stress (CRSS), deformation of poly-crystals - Hall-Petch and other hardening mechanisms, grain size effect - source limited plasticity, Hall-Petch breakdown, dislocations in ceramics and glasses.

• Effects of microstructure on the mechanics of polymeric media: deformation modes, yield, rubber toughening, alloys and blends.

• Fracture mechanics (energetics of fracture growth, plasticity at the fracture tip, measurement of fracture toughness, - Linear fracture mechanics -KIC, elasto-plastic fracture mechanics - JIC, Measurement and ASTM standards, Design based on fracture mechanics, effect of environment, effect of microstructure on KIC and JIC, application of fracture mechanics in the design of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites, damage tolerance design, elements of fractography).

• Fatigue (S-N curves, low- and high-cycle fatigue, laboratory testing in fatigue, residual stress, surface and environmental effects, fatigue of cracked components, designing out fatigue failure,Life cycle prediction, Fatigue in metals, ceramics, polymers and composites)

• Creep in crystalline materials (stress-strain-time relationship, creep testing, different stages of creep, creep mechanisms and creep mechanism maps, diffusion, creep and stress rupture, creep under multi-axial loading,microstructural aspects of creep and design of creep resistant alloys, high temperature deformation of ceramics and polymers)

- This course will examine how the microstructure of a material determines its mechanical behaviour ranging from the continuum description of properties to the atomistic and molecular mechanisms that confer those properties to all materials. We will cover elastic and plastic deformation, creep, fracture and fatigue of materials including crystalline and amorphous metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and (bio)polymers, and will focus on the design and processing of materials from the atomic to the macroscale to achieve desired mechanical behavior.
6 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR3: Discipline Chimiche e Fisiche

- UNo a scelta tra: Computational Materials Science e Chemistry of Soft Matter
Computational Materials Science (6 cfu)

- Quantum mechanical approaches, Density Functional Theory, many-body approaches. Multiscale approaches: quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics, coarse graining, polarizable continua. Electronic properties. Excited electronic states and UV-vis spectroscopy.
Vibrations, IR and Raman spectroscopy. Dynamicaleffects.

- Quantum mechanical approaches, Density Functional Theory, many-body approaches. Multiscale approaches: quantum mechanics, molecular mechanics, coarse graining, polarizable continua. Electronic properties. Excited electronic states and UV-vis spectroscopy.
Vibrations, IR and Raman spectroscopy. Dynamicaleffects.
Chemistry of Soft Matter (6 cfu)

- The course aims at:
-Understanding the general concepts of the chemistry of polymers, colloids and interfaces.
-Knowing key methods of polymerisation, and their applicability in soft matter.
-Explaining the polymeric properties, and the methods utilised to assess these properties.
-Explaining the relationships between polymer preparation, structure and properties.
-Describing the applications of polymers and understanding which polymers are suitable for which applications.
Course outline
Fundamentals of soft polymeric materials with special emphasis on the definition, classification, structure of monomers and polymers, their tacticity and molecular weight. Polymer chemistry (synthesis of polymers and the different mechanisms involved), polymer physics (the semi-crystalline state, the thermal transitions in polymers, structure-property relationships) and the mechanical behaviour of macromolecules are also described. Surface tension, adsorption and surface activity, micelle formation and colloids: examples and applications. General description of the importance of physical and chemical properties of soft matter as applied in advanced materials.

- The course aims at:
-Understanding the general concepts of the chemistry of polymers, colloids and interfaces.
-Knowing key methods of polymerisation, and their applicability in soft matter.
-Explaining the polymeric properties, and the methods utilised to assess these properties.
-Explaining the relationships between polymer preparation, structure and properties.
-Describing the applications of polymers and understanding which polymers are suitable for which applications.
Course outline
Fundamentals of soft polymeric materials with special emphasis on the definition, classification, structure of monomers and polymers, their tacticity and molecular weight. Polymer chemistry (synthesis of polymers and the different mechanisms involved), polymer physics (the semi-crystalline state, the thermal transitions in polymers, structure-property relationships) and the mechanical behaviour of macromolecules are also described. Surface tension, adsorption and surface activity, micelle formation and colloids: examples and applications. General description of the importance of physical and chemical properties of soft matter as applied in advanced materials.

6 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR4: Discipline dell'ingegneria

- Uno a scelta tra: Biomaterials, Transport Phenomena in Materials e Electron Microscopy of Nanomaterials
Transport Phenomena in Materials (6 cfu)

- This course deals with solid-state diffusion, homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions, and spinodal decomposition. Topics covered include: heat conduction in solids, convective and radiative heat transfer boundary conditions; fluid dynamics, 1-D solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, boundary layer theory, turbulent flow, and coupling with heat conduction and diffusion in fluids to calculate heat and mass transfer coefficients.
Course outline
The following aspects will be treated:
1. Mathematical Review
Differential operators (gradient, divergence, curl, laplacian) and tensors in cartesian and curvilinear (spherical, cylindrical) coordinates. Eulerian and Lagrangian derivatives.
2. Momentum and Heat Transport in Materials
Mass conservation: the continuity equation. Momentum flux and stress tensor. Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids. Momentum conservation: the motion equation and related boundary conditions. Bernoulli’s theorem. Flow fields in ducts and past solid bodies. Creeping and potential flow. Laminar and turbulent regimes. Heat flux: Fourier’s law. Energy conservation: the internal-energy equation. Velocity and temperature pertubations in bounded and unbounded systems. Adimensional transport equations and adimensional numbers.
3. Diffusion in Multi-Component Materials
Average mass and molar velocity. Absolute and relative fluxes. Mass flux: diffusion mechanisms and generalized Fick’s law. Continuity, motion and internal-energy equations for multi-component systems in dimensional and adimensional forms. Concentration perturbations.
4. Numerical Methods for Transport Equations
Finite-difference methods: consistency, convergence, stability. Overview of finite-element methods.
5. Illustrative Applications in Materials Science
Flow problems in polymer technology. Anisotropic flows and orientation dynamics in liquid crystals. Heterogeneous catalysts: diffusion with chemical reaction, kinetic control.

- This course deals with solid-state diffusion, homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions, and spinodal decomposition. Topics covered include: heat conduction in solids, convective and radiative heat transfer boundary conditions; fluid dynamics, 1-D solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, boundary layer theory, turbulent flow, and coupling with heat conduction and diffusion in fluids to calculate heat and mass transfer coefficients.
Course outline
The following aspects will be treated:
1. Mathematical Review
Differential operators (gradient, divergence, curl, laplacian) and tensors in cartesian and curvilinear (spherical, cylindrical) coordinates. Eulerian and Lagrangian derivatives.
2. Momentum and Heat Transport in Materials
Mass conservation: the continuity equation. Momentum flux and stress tensor. Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids. Momentum conservation: the motion equation and related boundary conditions. Bernoulli’s theorem. Flow fields in ducts and past solid bodies. Creeping and potential flow. Laminar and turbulent regimes. Heat flux: Fourier’s law. Energy conservation: the internal-energy equation. Velocity and temperature pertubations in bounded and unbounded systems. Adimensional transport equations and adimensional numbers.
3. Diffusion in Multi-Component Materials
Average mass and molar velocity. Absolute and relative fluxes. Mass flux: diffusion mechanisms and generalized Fick’s law. Continuity, motion and internal-energy equations for multi-component systems in dimensional and adimensional forms. Concentration perturbations.
4. Numerical Methods for Transport Equations
Finite-difference methods: consistency, convergence, stability. Overview of finite-element methods.
5. Illustrative Applications in Materials Science
Flow problems in polymer technology. Anisotropic flows and orientation dynamics in liquid crystals. Heterogeneous catalysts: diffusion with chemical reaction, kinetic control.
Biomaterials (6 cfu)

- This course of Biomaterials is designed to provide a general understanding of the multidisciplinary field of biomaterials, and to give a key focus on new products arising from nanotechnology. Specifically, it aims at developing in the attendants all the necessary skills as well as the fundamental theoretical and technical competences with the ultimate goal to have graduated students who can successfully interface with the multidisciplinary scenario of biomaterials-related products and technologies, both in industrial and research environments. The current and innovative applications of biomaterials will be evaluated to highlight the connections existing between material properties, function, biological responses and clinical applications. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of this topic, both teamwork and self-learning will be stimulated.
After the completion of the course, the students will be able to:
• Understand the interaction between biomaterials and biologic systems,
• Understand the fundamental principles of biomaterials and their properties,
• Know the advanced biofabrication techniques (from macro-to-nanoscale),
• Know the modern analytical and imaging techniques for characterization of biomaterials,
• Know the most important regulatory aspects for clinical translation,
• Demonstrate effective communication and teamwork skills through technical presentations and reports,
• Demonstrate capability of to understand the scientific literature.
Contents
Biocompatibility and material-cell/tissue/organ interactions. Classes of materials used in medicine (synthetic and biologic polymers, metals, ceramics, composites, graft tissues). Properties of materials (chemical, physical, mechanical, architectural, surface). Exploiting biomaterial properties for medical purposes. Advanced biofabrication techniques (nano and microfiber manufacturing, nanoparticle and nanotube synthesis). Techniques for biomaterials characterization. Biological testing of biomaterials. Application of materials in medicine, biology and artificial organs: tissue engineering, drug delivery, nanomedicine. Regulatory aspects involving biomaterial devices.

- This course of Biomaterials is designed to provide a general understanding of the multidisciplinary field of biomaterials, and to give a key focus on new products arising from nanotechnology. Specifically, it aims at developing in the attendants all the necessary skills as well as the fundamental theoretical and technical competences with the ultimate goal to have graduated students who can successfully interface with the multidisciplinary scenario of biomaterials-related products and technologies, both in industrial and research environments. The current and innovative applications of biomaterials will be evaluated to highlight the connections existing between material properties, function, biological responses and clinical applications. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of this topic, both teamwork and self-learning will be stimulated.
After the completion of the course, the students will be able to:
• Understand the interaction between biomaterials and biologic systems,
• Understand the fundamental principles of biomaterials and their properties,
• Know the advanced biofabrication techniques (from macro-to-nanoscale),
• Know the modern analytical and imaging techniques for characterization of biomaterials,
• Know the most important regulatory aspects for clinical translation,
• Demonstrate effective communication and teamwork skills through technical presentations and reports,
• Demonstrate capability of to understand the scientific literature.
Contents
Biocompatibility and material-cell/tissue/organ interactions. Classes of materials used in medicine (synthetic and biologic polymers, metals, ceramics, composites, graft tissues). Properties of materials (chemical, physical, mechanical, architectural, surface). Exploiting biomaterial properties for medical purposes. Advanced biofabrication techniques (nano and microfiber manufacturing, nanoparticle and nanotube synthesis). Techniques for biomaterials characterization. Biological testing of biomaterials. Application of materials in medicine, biology and artificial organs: tissue engineering, drug delivery, nanomedicine. Regulatory aspects involving biomaterial devices.
Electron Microscopy of Nanomaterials (6 cfu)

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9 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR1: Discipline Chimiche e Fisiche

- Uno a sceta tra: Quantum and condensed matter physics e -Solid State Physics
Quantum and condensed matter physics (9 cfu)

- Wave-particleduality and uncertaintyprinciple. Schroedingerequation. Onedimensionalmotion.
Hydrogen atom. Spin. Polyelectronic atoms. Atomic spectroscopy.
Hydrogen molecule. Polyatomic molecules. Rotations and vibrations of molecules. Molecular spectroscopy.
Thermal equilibrium and statistical distributions. Types of solids. Free electron model of metals. Phonons. Electronic energy bands and Bloch wavefunctions. Semiconductors. Transportproperties. Optical properties

- Wave-particleduality and uncertaintyprinciple. Schroedingerequation. Onedimensionalmotion.
Hydrogen atom. Spin. Polyelectronic atoms. Atomic spectroscopy.
Hydrogen molecule. Polyatomic molecules. Rotations and vibrations of molecules. Molecular spectroscopy.
Thermal equilibrium and statistical distributions. Types of solids. Free electron model of metals. Phonons. Electronic energy bands and Bloch wavefunctions. Semiconductors. Transportproperties. Optical properties
Solid State Physics (9 cfu)

- Electrons in a one dimensional periodic potential. Geometrical description of crystals: direct and reciprocal lattice. Electron gas. Electronic energy levels in solids. Lattice dynamics. Optical properties of semiconductors and insulators. Fundamentals of semiconductor physics.

- Electrons in a one dimensional periodic potential. Geometrical description of crystals: direct and reciprocal lattice. Electron gas. Electronic energy levels in solids. Lattice dynamics. Optical properties of semiconductors and insulators. Fundamentals of semiconductor physics.

9 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR2: Discipline Chimiche e fisiche

- Uno a scelta tra: Nanostructured Materials e Quantum Optics Lab
Nanostructured Materials (9 cfu)

- Synthesis and fabrication techniques of nanostructured materials. Morphological, electronic, chemical, compositional, structural and optical properties of semiconductor and carbon-based nanostructures; characterization techniques.

- Synthesis and fabrication techniques of nanostructured materials. Morphological, electronic, chemical, compositional, structural and optical properties of semiconductor and carbon-based nanostructures; characterization techniques.
Quantum Optics Lab (9 cfu)

- Electromagnetic propagation in homogeneous media. Polarisation of an electromagnetic wave. Laws of reflection and refraction. Interference. Optical Fibres.

- Electromagnetic propagation in homogeneous media. Polarisation of an electromagnetic wave. Laws of reflection and refraction. Interference. Optical Fibres.

12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR6

- Due a scelta tra: Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media, Materials in Nanoscale Electronics e Solid State Physicochemical Methods
Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media (6 cfu)

- Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media.
Obiettiviformativi:The course reviews the constitutive parameters of classical materials and introduces the methods for retrieving these parameters from measurements. Complex materials obtained with inclusions of dielectric or metallic particles into homogeneous media are addressed. Theory of wave propagation in complex media are presented and applied to metamaterial transmission lines and periodic structures.

- Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Complex Media.
Obiettiviformativi:The course reviews the constitutive parameters of classical materials and introduces the methods for retrieving these parameters from measurements. Complex materials obtained with inclusions of dielectric or metallic particles into homogeneous media are addressed. Theory of wave propagation in complex media are presented and applied to metamaterial transmission lines and periodic structures.
Materials and Devices for Nanoscale Electronics (6 cfu)

- The course focuses on the relationship between materials and the development of nanoelectronic devices. Starting from an analysis of the main characteristics of CMOS scaling and the role played by advanced materials in furthering Moore's law in the last decade, the role of emerging device concepts and the way they are enabled by novel material systems will then be introduced. Practical case studies and design examples will be discussed.

- The course focuses on the relationship between materials and the development of nanoelectronic devices. Starting from an analysis of the main characteristics of CMOS scaling and the role played by advanced materials in furthering Moore's law in the last decade, the role of emerging device concepts and the way they are enabled by novel material systems will then be introduced. Practical case studies and design examples will be discussed.
Solid State Physicochemical Methods (6 cfu)

- This course deals with subjects of molecular spectroscopy which have a fundamental importance for the characterization of materials. Its aim consists in giving to the students a basis concerning the physicochemical aspects of the most important spectroscopic techniques, as well as an overview of their possible applications.
Course outline
The following aspects will be treated:
Basics of molecular spectroscopy: the electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetic radiations and their interaction with molecules (absorption, emission, scattering), energy levels and different types of transitions, etc.
Hints on several bulk spectroscopic techniques: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Mossbauer, etc.
Solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: the nuclear spin, nuclear interactions, basics theory, peculiarities of the solid state, different techniques and their applications to the study of structure and dynamics of different classes of materials.
Physico-chemical methods for the study of the surfaces of materials will also be treated, as for instance Raman scattering and photoelectronic spectroscopies.

- This course deals with subjects of molecular spectroscopy which have a fundamental importance for the characterization of materials. Its aim consists in giving to the students a basis concerning the physicochemical aspects of the most important spectroscopic techniques, as well as an overview of their possible applications.
Course outline
The following aspects will be treated:
Basics of molecular spectroscopy: the electromagnetic spectrum, electromagnetic radiations and their interaction with molecules (absorption, emission, scattering), energy levels and different types of transitions, etc.
Hints on several bulk spectroscopic techniques: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Mossbauer, etc.
Solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: the nuclear spin, nuclear interactions, basics theory, peculiarities of the solid state, different techniques and their applications to the study of structure and dynamics of different classes of materials.
Physico-chemical methods for the study of the surfaces of materials will also be treated, as for instance Raman scattering and photoelectronic spectroscopies.

12 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR5

- Uno a scelta tra: Electromagnetic Materials and Electron Devices e Spectroscopy of nanomaterials
Electromagnetic Materials and Electron Devices (12 cfu)

- Electromagnetic Materials
The course introduces the fundamental laws of electromagnetic fields, with the aim of devising electromagnetic properties of materials. The different configurations of the electromagnetic field propagating in various transmission lines are treated in details and then used for resorting to equivalent model representations of composite materials. Analysis of radiating structures and definition of parameters employed to characterize microwave devices are also addressed.
Electron Devices
The course covers the fundamental properties of the electron devices that represent the building blocks of modern electronic circuits and systems. After introducing the main concepts of electrical transport in semiconductors, the physics and the operation of the pn junction, the bipolar and the field effect transistors are treated in detail. Furthermore, we will discuss the effect of nanostructuring on the transport properties of materials and on device properties.

- Electromagnetic Materials
The course introduces the fundamental laws of electromagnetic fields, with the aim of devising electromagnetic properties of materials. The different configurations of the electromagnetic field propagating in various transmission lines are treated in details and then used for resorting to equivalent model representations of composite materials. Analysis of radiating structures and definition of parameters employed to characterize microwave devices are also addressed.
Electron Devices
The course covers the fundamental properties of the electron devices that represent the building blocks of modern electronic circuits and systems. After introducing the main concepts of electrical transport in semiconductors, the physics and the operation of the pn junction, the bipolar and the field effect transistors are treated in detail. Furthermore, we will discuss the effect of nanostructuring on the transport properties of materials and on device properties.
Spectroscopy of nanomaterials (12 cfu)

- Emission, scattering, absorption properties of confined nano systems; experimental techniques, sources, detectors, spectrometers; Fourier and Raman spectroscopy; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; plasmonics from surface and localized resonances; survey of nano photonics devices; linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopies; optical microscopy beyond the diffraction limit; atomic and electrostatic force microscopy and spectroscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy.

- Emission, scattering, absorption properties of confined nano systems; experimental techniques, sources, detectors, spectrometers; Fourier and Raman spectroscopy; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; plasmonics from surface and localized resonances; survey of nano photonics devices; linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopies; optical microscopy beyond the diffraction limit; atomic and electrostatic force microscopy and spectroscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy.

Tirocinio (15 cfu)

Prova finale (15 cfu)

Polymer Science and Engineering (6 cfu)

- Molecular structure of polymers: thermoplastics and thermosets, definitions and types. Polymer chain flexibility. Chain conformations in polymers. Review of classical and statistical thermodynamics, configuration and conformation of isolated polymer chains, the rotational isomeric state model, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of polymer solutions, scaling theory, single chain dynamics, scattering (light, x-ray, neutron).Rubber elasticity. Amorphous state and glass transition. Free volume theory &Tg. Crystalline state and crystallization.

Thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and thermomechanical analysis) is explained, together with brief description of instruments and data analysis. Characterization of orientation, morphology, superstructure in polymers using x-ray, light scattering, birefringence, dichroism. Crystallography, unit cell determination. Spectroscopy theory. UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Infra-Red Spectroscopy. NMR spectroscopy.

Definitions of Polymer Processing. Extrusion lines. Injection molding processes. Blow molding Processes. Application of Rheology in Polymer Processing: Simple die and injection mold design. Screw types and definitions. Screw design: metering zone. Isothermal and adiabatic extrusion equations.

- Molecular structure of polymers: thermoplastics and thermosets, definitions and types. Polymer chain flexibility. Chain conformations in polymers. Review of classical and statistical thermodynamics, configuration and conformation of isolated polymer chains, the rotational isomeric state model, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of polymer solutions, scaling theory, single chain dynamics, scattering (light, x-ray, neutron).Rubber elasticity. Amorphous state and glass transition. Free volume theory &Tg. Crystalline state and crystallization.
Attività a libera scelta (12 cfu)

- Gli studenti possono scegliere 12 cfu tra gli altri corsi di entrambi gli indirizzi

- Gli studenti possono scegliere 12 cfu tra gli altri corsi di entrambi gli indirizzi
6 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR7 - Discipline chimiche e fisiche II anno

- Uno a scelta tra: Polymeric Materials for Special Applications, Rheology e Disordered and off-Equilibrium Systems
Polymeric Materials for Special Applications (6 cfu)

- The course aims at providing a wide understanding of modern science and technology of polymeric materials with the principal objective of achieving a good knowledge of the chemical fundamentals of the design, preparation and application of polymers in a variety of advanced applications.
Main topics will deal with:
-Basic principles of the industrial chemistry of polymers, mainly synthetic polymers as well as natural polymers.
-Special features concerned with the molecular design, preparation and characterization of polymers starting from both petrochemicals, fine chemicals and chemicals from renewable resources.
-Analysis of the main physical-chemical properties, in view of current and prospective uses in e.g. optical and photonic devices, liquid crystalline fibers and composites, high performance and engineering plastics, environmentally friendly and biodegradable polymer systems.
The student will learn criteria for selection of more actual and profitable products and processes and will know how to tackle the current issues associated with science and technology for industrial production and its social-economical and environmental impact. He/she will be able to define structure-reactivity and structure-property relationships for special polymers in view of their practical performance in specific application fields.

- The course aims at providing a wide understanding of modern science and technology of polymeric materials with the principal objective of achieving a good knowledge of the chemical fundamentals of the design, preparation and application of polymers in a variety of advanced applications.
Main topics will deal with:
-Basic principles of the industrial chemistry of polymers, mainly synthetic polymers as well as natural polymers.
-Special features concerned with the molecular design, preparation and characterization of polymers starting from both petrochemicals, fine chemicals and chemicals from renewable resources.
-Analysis of the main physical-chemical properties, in view of current and prospective uses in e.g. optical and photonic devices, liquid crystalline fibers and composites, high performance and engineering plastics, environmentally friendly and biodegradable polymer systems.
The student will learn criteria for selection of more actual and profitable products and processes and will know how to tackle the current issues associated with science and technology for industrial production and its social-economical and environmental impact. He/she will be able to define structure-reactivity and structure-property relationships for special polymers in view of their practical performance in specific application fields.
Rheology (6 cfu)

- 1) The viscosity of liquids
- introduction to rheology
2) Flow and deformation
-introduction
-shear rate and shear stress
-dimensions and units
3) The newtonian liquid
- viscosity
- variation of viscosity with temperature
- effects of pressure
-limit of newtonian behaviour
4) Some equations for the flow of newtonian liquid
-flow in rotational viscometer
-flow in straight circular pipes
-spheres falling in newtonian liquids
- other important flows
5) Viscometry
-some important things about using viscometers
-viscometer design
6) Shear—thinning liquid
-qualitative features of flow curves
-mathematical description of flow curves: models
7) Equations for the flow of non – newtonian fluids
-some selected exemples
8) Yield stress fluids
- history of the yield stress and yield stress values
- flow equations with yield stress
9) The flow of “solids”
- non-linear “viscosity” of solids
10) Linear viscoelasticity and time effects
- introduction
- mechanical analogues of viscoelastic behaviour
- measuring linear viscoelasticity : creep and oscillatory tests, response of model materials and real systems
- relationship between oscillatory and steady-state viscoelastic parameters
- stress relaxation testing and start-up experiments
11)Non- linear viscoelasticity
- everyday elastic liquids
- some visible viscoelastic manifestations
- proper description of viscoelastic forces and their measurements
- some viscoelastic formulas
15) The flow of suspensions
- viscosity of dispersions and emulsions
- effects of the shape and size of the particles
-overview of particle interactions
- viscosity of flocculated systems
-thixotropy
-shear thickening
16) Polymer rheology
- different kinds of polymer chains
- polymer solutions
- polymer melts
17) Rheology of surfactant systems
-surfactant phases
-rheology of surfactant systems
18) Rheology of food products
19) Extensional flow
-the extensional flow
- the Trouton ratio
- examples of extensional viscosity curves
- some applications

- 1) The viscosity of liquids
- introduction to rheology
2) Flow and deformation
-introduction
-shear rate and shear stress
-dimensions and units
3) The newtonian liquid
- viscosity
- variation of viscosity with temperature
- effects of pressure
-limit of newtonian behaviour
4) Some equations for the flow of newtonian liquid
-flow in rotational viscometer
-flow in straight circular pipes
-spheres falling in newtonian liquids
- other important flows
5) Viscometry
-some important things about using viscometers
-viscometer design
6) Shear—thinning liquid
-qualitative features of flow curves
-mathematical description of flow curves: models
7) Equations for the flow of non – newtonian fluids
-some selected exemples
8) Yield stress fluids
- history of the yield stress and yield stress values
- flow equations with yield stress
9) The flow of “solids”
- non-linear “viscosity” of solids
10) Linear viscoelasticity and time effects
- introduction
- mechanical analogues of viscoelastic behaviour
- measuring linear viscoelasticity : creep and oscillatory tests, response of model materials and real systems
- relationship between oscillatory and steady-state viscoelastic parameters
- stress relaxation testing and start-up experiments
11)Non- linear viscoelasticity
- everyday elastic liquids
- some visible viscoelastic manifestations
- proper description of viscoelastic forces and their measurements
- some viscoelastic formulas
15) The flow of suspensions
- viscosity of dispersions and emulsions
- effects of the shape and size of the particles
-overview of particle interactions
- viscosity of flocculated systems
-thixotropy
-shear thickening
16) Polymer rheology
- different kinds of polymer chains
- polymer solutions
- polymer melts
17) Rheology of surfactant systems
-surfactant phases
-rheology of surfactant systems
18) Rheology of food products
19) Extensional flow
-the extensional flow
- the Trouton ratio
- examples of extensional viscosity curves
- some applications
Disordered and off-Equilibrium Systems (6 cfu)

- By the end of the course, students will have acquired a basic knowledge in the following areas:
· Description and interpretation of disorder in liquids, colloids, glasses and polymers,
· Dynamics and thermodynamics of the off-equilibrium systems,
· Experimental techniques currently used in studies concerning structure and dynamics of disordered system
Format: lectures, group learning projects

- By the end of the course, students will have acquired a basic knowledge in the following areas:
· Description and interpretation of disorder in liquids, colloids, glasses and polymers,
· Dynamics and thermodynamics of the off-equilibrium systems,
· Experimental techniques currently used in studies concerning structure and dynamics of disordered system
Format: lectures, group learning projects

6 cfu a scelta nel gruppo GR8: Discipline chimiche e fisiche II anno

- Uno a scelta tra: Composite Materials Science and Engineering, Principles of Microfluidics, Processing and Recycling of Polymers, Sustainable and Degradable Polymers e Advanced Ceramics and Smart Glasses
Sustainable and Degradable Polymers (6 cfu)

- This course emphasizes the recyclability and the cradle-to-grave nature of engineering materials. The course will focus on the modification and application of natural polymers, biopolymers, including their composites. Both processing and material characterisationwill be discussed in detail. The use, manufacture and design of biodegradable materials will also be discussed in the context of the cradle-to-grave or cradle-to-cradle materials use philosophy. Life cycle assessment of the process will be introduced alongside the societal perspective on the use of sustainable engineering materials. Strategies for the development and use of sustainable engineering materials will be discussed.
Topics will include:
Definitions related to Biopolymers, Proteins as Polymers, Polysaccharides as Polymers, Biofibers for Biocomposites, Microbial BioPolymers, Biomonomersand Polymers synthesized of, Bioresources, Natural Rubber, Properties and applicationsof biopolymers.

- This course emphasizes the recyclability and the cradle-to-grave nature of engineering materials. The course will focus on the modification and application of natural polymers, biopolymers, including their composites. Both processing and material characterisationwill be discussed in detail. The use, manufacture and design of biodegradable materials will also be discussed in the context of the cradle-to-grave or cradle-to-cradle materials use philosophy. Life cycle assessment of the process will be introduced alongside the societal perspective on the use of sustainable engineering materials. Strategies for the development and use of sustainable engineering materials will be discussed.
Topics will include:
Definitions related to Biopolymers, Proteins as Polymers, Polysaccharides as Polymers, Biofibers for Biocomposites, Microbial BioPolymers, Biomonomersand Polymers synthesized of, Bioresources, Natural Rubber, Properties and applicationsof biopolymers.
Processing and Recycling of Polymers (6 cfu)

- Rheological constitutive equations. Newtonian and non-newtonian behavior with particular reference to polymer melts. Isothermal flows in ducts. Measurement of shear viscosity of polymer melts: rotational and capillary rheometers. Measurement of “melt index” of polymer melts. Viscoelastic behavior of polymer melts. Temperature effects. PvT relationships. Rheology of multiphase systems. Fundamentals of injection moulding and extrusion technology, thermoforming, compression and transfer moulding, rotational moulding, sintering, blow moulding. Residence time distribution functions.
Reactive polymer processing and compounding of polymer blends. Chemorheology of reacting systems. Processing of polymer composites and nano-composites.
Analysis of the moulding process and post-processing technologies. Computer modeling and simulation of polymer processing.

- Rheological constitutive equations. Newtonian and non-newtonian behavior with particular reference to polymer melts. Isothermal flows in ducts. Measurement of shear viscosity of polymer melts: rotational and capillary rheometers. Measurement of “melt index” of polymer melts. Viscoelastic behavior of polymer melts. Temperature effects. PvT relationships. Rheology of multiphase systems. Fundamentals of injection moulding and extrusion technology, thermoforming, compression and transfer moulding, rotational moulding, sintering, blow moulding. Residence time distribution functions.
Reactive polymer processing and compounding of polymer blends. Chemorheology of reacting systems. Processing of polymer composites and nano-composites.
Analysis of the moulding process and post-processing technologies. Computer modeling and simulation of polymer processing.
Composite Materials Science and Engineering (6 cfu)

- Fibers and Matrices. Micromechanics of composites: Longitudinal behavior of unidirectional composites; Transverse Properties; Shear properties and poison ratio. Stress concentration, fracture and fracture mechanisms of composites. Thermal Expansion Coefficients. Short Fiber Reinforced Composites. Polymeric Foams. Adhesion and adhesive. Rheological behavior of thermosets, vulcanization of rubbers, time-temperature-transition relationships in thermosets. Fabrication of the composites. Reaction injection molding, compression/transfer molding, pultrusion.
Advanced CeramicMatrix Composite Materials (CMCs): carbon/carbon (C/C), carbon/silicon carbide (C/SiC), silicon carbide/silicon carbide composites, LSI, PIP, CVI technologies.

- Fibers and Matrices. Micromechanics of composites: Longitudinal behavior of unidirectional composites; Transverse Properties; Shear properties and poison ratio. Stress concentration, fracture and fracture mechanisms of composites. Thermal Expansion Coefficients. Short Fiber Reinforced Composites. Polymeric Foams. Adhesion and adhesive. Rheological behavior of thermosets, vulcanization of rubbers, time-temperature-transition relationships in thermosets. Fabrication of the composites. Reaction injection molding, compression/transfer molding, pultrusion.
Advanced CeramicMatrix Composite Materials (CMCs): carbon/carbon (C/C), carbon/silicon carbide (C/SiC), silicon carbide/silicon carbide composites, LSI, PIP, CVI technologies.
Principles of Microfluidics (6 cfu)

- 1. Fundamentals of fluid mechanics: newtonian fluids, Navier-Stokes equations; analysis of the flow in various regimes: inertial flows, irrotational flows, low-Reynolds-number (creeping) flows; boundary conditions.
2. Physical chemistry of surfaces: interfacial phenomena, capillarity; micro/nano particles in fluids: electrical interfaces in electrolyte solutions, electrical double layer, colloidal dispersions, micro-emulsions.
3. Fluid flows in confined geometries: flows in micro-pores; electro-osmotic flows; diffusio-osmotic flows; capillary flows, coating flows. Low-Reynolds-number flows of micro-particles (or micro-drops o micro-bubbles ) in fluids; micro-break-up of liquid jets, sprays; electrophoresis, diffusiophoresis, liquid flows driven by surface tension. Aggregation dynamics of colloidal particles with or without shear-flow: I e II Smoluchowski’s theory.

- 1. Fundamentals of fluid mechanics: newtonian fluids, Navier-Stokes equations; analysis of the flow in various regimes: inertial flows, irrotational flows, low-Reynolds-number (creeping) flows; boundary conditions.
2. Physical chemistry of surfaces: interfacial phenomena, capillarity; micro/nano particles in fluids: electrical interfaces in electrolyte solutions, electrical double layer, colloidal dispersions, micro-emulsions.
3. Fluid flows in confined geometries: flows in micro-pores; electro-osmotic flows; diffusio-osmotic flows; capillary flows, coating flows. Low-Reynolds-number flows of micro-particles (or micro-drops o micro-bubbles ) in fluids; micro-break-up of liquid jets, sprays; electrophoresis, diffusiophoresis, liquid flows driven by surface tension. Aggregation dynamics of colloidal particles with or without shear-flow: I e II Smoluchowski’s theory.
Advanced Ceramics and Smart Glasses (6 cfu)

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