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NEUROSCIENCE

Corso di laurea magistrale

Piano di Studi


Primo anno

  • Neuropharmacology and Biochemistry of Signalling (6 cfu)

    • SIGNALING THROUGH G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS Trimeric G Proteins Relay Signals From GPCRs Cyclic-AMP/mediatedsignaling, some G Proteins Signal Via Phospholipids, Ca 2+/mediated signaling, G Proteins Directly Regulate Ion Channels
      SIGNALING THROUGH ENZYME-COUPLED RECEPTORS Signaling through Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs),Signaling through Ras and MAP Kinase, Rho Family GTPases, PI-3-Kinase¬–Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway, JAK–STAT Signaling Pathway, TGF ' Signaling
      ALTERNATIVE SIGNALING ROUTES IN GENE REGULATION Notch, Wnt, Hedgehog pathways, NF ' B-Dependent Signaling Pathway, Nuclear Receptors
  • Neurobiology I (6 cfu)

    • Biophysical basis for neuronal excitability. Molecular and cellular biology of the neuronal and glial
      cells. Passive transmission of electric signals in neurons and cable equations. Ionic basis of the action potentials.
      Frequency coding. Structural biology of ionic channels and receptors. Molecular and subcellular organization of the pre and post synapse.
      Neuronal cytoskeleton, axonal transport of proteins and molecular motors. Neuron-glia communication. Axonal and dendritic mRNA transport. Molecular and biophysical mechanisms of synaptic transmission.
      Neurotransmitter release. Post synaptic receptors and reversal potential. Quantal analysis of synaptic transmission
      changes. Biophysical methods for the study of electrical and chemical signalling in the brain.

  • Nanotechnology for neurosciences (6 cfu)

    • Principles of molecular imaging. Principles and strategies for drug delivery, crossing the blood brain barrier and PNS/CNS nerve regeneration. Molecular processes at the basis of chemogenetics, optogenetics and magnetogenetics. Chemical and biochemical sensors for neuroscience-related applications. Molecular basis of the new perspectives in the development of next generation neural interfaces.
  • Development and Differentiation of the nervous System (6 cfu)

    • Morphogenesis of the central nervous system: neurulation and neural tube formation. Molecular mechanisms of neural induction and neural patterning. Neural genesis and migration. Neural cell determination and differentiation; molecular control of gene transcription and translation in cell determination. Molecular mechanisms of cell cycle and cell death in the developing nervous system. Axon growth and guidance; target selection; map formation. Neural stem cells. Epigenetic control of neuronal commitment: molecular mechanisms of cell memory, chromatin structure and function.
  • Mathematics for neurosciences (6 cfu)

    • The course will provide the mathematical basis for a quantitative approach to Neurosciences and teach how to formulate, solve and interpret mathematical models for the description of neurobiological systems. Calculus, Differential equations. Linear Algebra. Elements of probability and statisticis. Statistical analysis of experimental data. Biostatisticis for the planning of experiments.
  • Neurobiology II (9 cfu)

    • Gross anatomy of the central nervous system.
      Sensory systems: sensory coding; processing of chemical, somatosensory, visual and acoustic stimuli.
      Motor systems: motor cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and descending pathways.
      Neuronal information processing (examples): gaze control; sleep and dreaming.
      Neuroendocrine interactions: regulation of food intake.
      Neurovascular interactions: physiology and pathology (retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration as examples of disrupted neurovascular interactions).

  • Neurogenomics (6 cfu)

    • Genetics (3 CFU) Human genome structure: repetitive elements, transposable elements, regulatory sequences, non-coding RNAs, chromatin domains - Mobile DNA elements in the generation of diversity and complexity in the brain and thir implication in psychiatric disorders. Genetics of quantitative traits: GWAS and QTL analysis - Examples of GWAS and association studies relevant for the neurosciences (e.g ApoE4 and other risk factors) - Molecular evolution of genes relevant for the neurosciences (e.g. D4R, FOXP2). Trancriptomics insights into human brain evolution. Physiological genomics (3 CFU) RNA-seq techniques: sequencing, mapping and detection of differentially-expressed genes
  • Transgenic models and molecular methods for Neurosciences (6 cfu)

    • Generation of transgenic organisms (C.elegans, Drosofila, Danio rerio, Xenopus, mouse); in vivo gene targeting (RNA interference, mouse gene KO and knock-in and Conditional KO); viral vectors for gene mis-expression and inactivation in vivo and in vitro; viral tracing of neuronal connections, genome editing, CRISPR Cas9; antibody and peptide libraries.
  • 9 cfu a scelta nel gruppo Attività a scelta

    • Attività consigliate per la scelta dello studente
    • Omics technologies for Neurosciences (3 cfu)

      • Introduction to anaylsis of RNA-seq data. ChiP-seq, Ribosome profiling . Proteomics. Elements of network theory. Application of network theory to connectomics. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Construction of networks with Cytoscape and WGCNA in R. Integration of different -omics data. Examples of applications of WGCA to the Neurosciences
    • Comparative Neurobiology (3 cfu)

      • Analisi dei principi strutturali e funzionali dell'encefalo dei Vertebrati discussi in chiave evolutiva. Sviluppo e struttura dell'encefalo dei vertebrati. Evoluzione del telencefalo dei vertebrati. La corticogenesi nell’embrione e nell’adulto. Principi di sviluppo ed evoluzione del cervello come paradigmi per lo studio delle patologie neuro-psichiatriche.
    • Biological basis of neurodegeneration and of neurodevelopmental diseases (6 cfu)

      • Common molecular and cellular mechanisms in neurodegeneration. Physiology and pathology of amyloid precursor protein and of microtubule associated protein tau. Physiology of the cholinergic system and Alzheimer's disease and Down Syndrome. Physiology of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway and Parkinson disease. Physiology and pathology of the huntingtin and fmr proteins in Huntington and Fragile X syndrome. Physiology and pathology of MeCP2 in Rett Syndrome. Neuroinflammation and pathophysiology of myelination in Multiple Sclerosis. Pathophysiology of chronic pain. Molecular and neurodevelppmental basis of neuropsychiatric disorders
    • Human Functional Imaging (3 cfu)

      • MRI, EEG and MEG techniques. Designing an fMRI experiment on sensory cortex. Resting state correlation methods and algorithms. Diffusion Tensor Imaging and correlation with anatomical pathways. Comparison between fMRI, EEG and ECoGs studies in human. fMRI techniques for topographic mapping (retinotopy, tonotopy, somatotopy etc). Laboratory Unit for fMRI analysis
    • Neurobiology of animal behaviour (6 cfu)

      • The study of the neural bases of behavior: the emergence of neuroethology. Neurobiological processing of key stimuli and organization of a coordinated motor output. Classical studies in neuroethology: electrolocation in fish; echolocation in bats and cetaceans; directional sound localization in owls; vocal learning in songbirds; local navigation and the hippocampus in rodents; large scale navigation and spatial learning in birds
    • Environmental experience and brain plasticity (3 cfu)

      • Knowledge and understanding: the course aims to provide students with up-to-date knowledge concerning the impact of environmental stimulation on brain plasticity at the behavioural, electrophysiological and molecular level. Particular attention will be paid to paradigms of early sensory deprivation (e.g. monocular deprivation, maternal separation, stress) enrichment (environmental enrichment, handling, infant massage) and their long-lasting effects for the developing subject. A special focus will be the study of paradigmatic cases of neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. amblyopia, Down syndrome, Rett syndrome). Moreover, the course will cover the study of the mechanisms underlying brain critical periods, together with the possibility to reopen windows of enhanced cerebral plasticity in both the adult and aging brain.
    • Neural stem cells (3 cfu)

      • Stem cell basics: molecular machinery of stem cells and differentiation into specific cell types. Neural stem cells of the developing nervous system. Neuroprogenitors in cortical development and evolution. Adult neural stem cells and neurogenesis. Neural stem cells and brain tumors. Alternative sources of neural stem cells: induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) and direct reprogramming. Brain organoids. Clinical application of neural stem cells for neurodegenerative disorders.
    • Analysis of temporal series (3 cfu)

      • The course will provide the programming basis for a quantitative approach to the analysys of the neurobiological signals and teach how to formulate, solve and interpret matlab programming language. Programming statistical analysis of experimental data. Introduction to the Matlab development environment Scalars, vectors, matrices and relative operators Creation of graphic user interfaces (GUIs) How to share and exchange data between different GUIs. Spectral and statistical analysis of temporal series applied to the study of electrophysiological signals and calcium imaging
  • Secondo anno

  • Sensory and Cognitive Neuroscience (6 cfu)

    • Psychophysical and behavioural methods; Coding and decoding mechanisms of Sensory Stimuli; neuronal networks model of sensory processing;  Topographical Representation and Representation of Space and Time; Sensory Motor interactions; Multisensory Integration; Higher Cortical Functions and Processing; Attention; Memory; Consciousness. Development of human sensory system. Laboratory Unit on psychophysical methods.
  • Neurobiology III (6 cfu)

    • Synaptic plasticity, learning and memory (3 CFU) Molecular
      and cellular mechanisms for synaptic and neuronal plasticity as the basis for learning and memory in the nervous system. Short term and long term plasticity. Long term potentiation and long term depression, presynaptic and Hebbian mechanisms and Spike time dependent plasticity. Homeostatic plasticity. Activity dependent gene expression. Local translational control of gene expression at synapses. Neuro-epigenetics and long term transcriptional changes. The physiology of memory systems. Memory formation, consolidation, reconsolidation and erasure. Engrams and the nature of memory traces. Plasticity and critical periods: the visual systems plasticity. Plasticity of neuronal circuits, reorganization and remodeling of circuits. Maladaptive plasticity and drug abuse. Chronic pain as a form of maladaptive plasticity. Adult neurogenesis and aging (3 CFU): mechanisms of adult neurogenesis and its modulation by experience and during aging. Adult neurogenesis , learning and memory. Aging of the brain: morphological and physiological changes. Systemic and metabolic control of aging, role of the hypothalamus calorie restriction and IGFI

  • 48 cfu a scelta nel gruppo Master degree Thesis

    • In questo gruppo si propone una scelta tra una tesi di laurea che prevede un tirocinio di 25 CFU e 23 CFU per il completamento della tesi ed una tesi di laurea che prevede un internato di tesi di 48 CFU totali.
    • Master degree Thesis B (23 cfu)

      • L'attività di internato di tesi prevede lo svolgimento di un tirocinio presso Enti esterni e la stesura di una tesi di laurea magistrale che descrive un lavoro sperimentale originale svolto dallo studente sia durante il tirocinio che nel periodo successivo seguito da un relatore (e da due correlatori (assegnati dal consiglio di corso di laurea).
    • Master degree Thesis A (48 cfu)

      • L’attività formativa prevede la stesura di una tesi di laurea magistrale che descrive un lavoro sperimentale originale svolto dallo studente seguito da un relatore (e da due correlatori (assegnati dal consiglio di corso di laurea).
    • Stage (25 cfu)

      • L’attività formativa prevede un tirocinio di 25 CFU propedeutico alla tesi di laurea da svolgersi sotto la guida di un tutor interno che sarà anche relatore della tesi.

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